Within-Plant Variation In Glucosinolate Concentrations of Raphanus sativus Across Multiple Scales Article First Online: 21 July 2005 Received: 19 March 2004 Revised: 28 March 2005 Accepted: 06 April 2005 DOI:
Cite this article as: Shelton, A.L. J Chem Ecol (2005) 31: 1711. doi:10.1007/s10886-005-5922-9 Abstract
Variation in chemical defenses remains underexplored. In particular, little is known about patterns of variation at small scales within leaves and spatial variation of induction. I examined variation in glucosinolate concentrations in the leaves of
Raphanus sativus at several different spatial scales in two related experiments. I used samples equivalent in area to the amount an intermediate-sized caterpillar might eat in 1 d, a smaller scale than used in most previous studies. I examined variation due to induction and leaf age and small-scale spatial variation within leaves. The mean and variance of glucosinolate concentrations were higher in induced plants, young leaves, and the proximal half of leaves. Higher glucosinolate concentrations in the proximal half of leaves are previously unreported. Small-scale variation was extreme, accounting for 57% of the total random variation, and spatially random. There was no spatial autocorrelation found at scales as small as 1–2 cm. The high degree of small-scale, spatially random variation in glucosinolate concentrations in leaves is previously unreported. This small-scale variation and the variation caused by induction may have significant effects on herbivores and could be an important component of plant defense. Key Words Chemical defenses induction spatial patterns small-scale variation Raphanus sativus glucosinolates References Adler, F. R., Karban, R. 1994 Defended fortresses or moving targets?: Another model of inducible defenses inspired by military metaphors Amer. Nat. 144 813 832 Google Scholar Agrawal, A. A., Kurashige, N. S. 2003 A role for isothiocyanates in plant resistance against the specialist herbivore Pieris rapae J. Chem. Ecol. 29 1403 1415 Google Scholar Agrawal, A. A., Strauss, S. Y., Stout, M. J. 1999 Costs of induced responses and tolerance to herbivory in male and female fitness components of wild radish Evolution 53 1093 1104 Google Scholar Berenbaum, M. R. 1995 The chemistry of defense: theory and practice Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 92 2 8 Google Scholar Bodnaryk, R. P. 1992 Effects of wounding on glucosinolates in the cotyledons of oilseed rape and mustard Phytochemistry 31 2671 2677 Google Scholar Brown, P. D., Tokuhisa, J. G., Reichelt, M., Gershenzon, J. 2003 Variation of glucosinolate accumulation among different organs and developmental stages of Arabidopsis thaliana Phytochemistry 62 471 481 Google Scholar Chew, F. S. 1975 Coevolution of Pierid butterflies and their Cruciferous foodplants I. The relative quality of available resources Oecologia 20 117 127 Google Scholar Chew, F. S. 1988 Biological effects of glucosinolates Cutler, H. G. eds. Biologically Active Natural Products: Potential Use in Agriculture American Chemical Society Washington, DC 155 181 Google Scholar Cressie, N. A. C. 1991Statistics for Spatial Data John Wiley & Sons New York Google Scholar Crowley, P. H. 1992 Resampling methods for computation-intensive data analysis in ecology and evolution Ann. Rev. Ecolog. Syst. 23 405 447 Google Scholar
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