Journal of Chemical Ecology

, Volume 31, Issue 2, pp 377–392

Stir Bar Sorptive Extraction: A New Quantitative and Comprehensive Sampling Technique for Determination of Chemical Signal Profiles from Biological Media

  • Helena A. Soini
  • Kevin E. Bruce
  • Donald Wiesler
  • Frank David
  • Pat Sandra
  • Milos V. Novotny


Various applications of a novel sampling procedure in chemical ecology are outlined. The stir bar extraction method features the analytical reproducibility needed in recording the analytical profiles of volatile and semivolatile components of biological mixtures. This methodology has been demonstrated here through the examples of small volume urine samples, glandular tissue volatiles, and the air blown through animal cages. Its analytical merits are compared with those of the previously established purge-and-trap (dynamic headspace) technique.


Pheromones chemical signals hamster urine methods mouse urine rat preputial gland rat odor volatiles stir bar sorptive extraction gas chromatography–mass spectrometry 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Helena A. Soini
    • 1
  • Kevin E. Bruce
    • 1
  • Donald Wiesler
    • 1
  • Frank David
    • 2
  • Pat Sandra
    • 2
  • Milos V. Novotny
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemistry, Institute for Pheromone ResearchIndiana UniversityBloomingtonUSA
  2. 2.Research Institute for ChromatographyKortrijkBelgium

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