# On Conditions for Rate-induced Tipping in Multi-dimensional Dynamical Systems

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## Abstract

The possibility of *rate-induced tipping* (R-tipping) away from an attracting fixed point has been thoroughly explored in 1-dimensional systems. In these systems, it is impossible to have R-tipping away from a path of quasi-stable equilibria that is *forward basin stable* (FBS), but R-tipping is guaranteed for paths that are non-FBS of a certain type. We will investigate whether these results carry over to multi-dimensional systems. In particular, we will show that the same conditions guaranteeing R-tipping in 1-dimension also guarantee R-tipping in higher dimensions; however, it is possible to have R-tipping away from a path that is FBS even in 2-dimensional systems. We will propose a different condition, *forward inflowing stability* (FIS), which we show is sufficient to prevent R-tipping in all dimensions. The condition, while natural, is difficult to verify in concrete examples. *Monotone systems* are a class for which FIS is implied by an easily verifiable condition. As a result, we see how the additional structure of these systems makes predicting the possibility of R-tipping straightforward in a fashion similar to 1-dimension. In particular, we will prove that the FBS and FIS conditions in monotone systems reduce to comparing the relative positions of equilibria over time. An example of a monotone system is given that demonstrates how these ideas are applied to determine exactly when R-tipping is possible.

## Keywords

Tipping Loss of stability Transitions Time-dependent parameters## Notes

### Acknowledgements

The authors acknowledge support for this research from the Office of Naval Research under Grant N00014-18-1-2204.

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