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Psychological Benefits of Inclusive Soccer Program in Young Adults with and without Intellectual Disabilities

  • C.-C. (J.J.) ChenEmail author
  • Y. Ryuh
  • H. Hardwick
  • R. Shirley
  • B. Brinkley
  • S. Lim
  • Y. Lee
  • M.-L. Kim
ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Abstract

This study was aimed at investigating the effects of the inclusive soccer program on psychological benefits in young adults with and without intellectual disabilities (ID). In the current study, sport motivation, measured as the relative autonomy index, visuo-spatial working memory and selective attention aspects of executive function, measured as the computerized Corsi Block Tapping Test and Eriksen Flanker Test were assessed. Ten participants with ID and ten typical partners practiced soccer activities together for 50-min each session, twice a week for fifteen-week long. The whole practice sessions were monitored at moderate exercise intensity. Measures were tested at pre- and post- program. Our results indicated that the typical partners improved the performance in Corsi Block Tapping Test because partners needed to search and select participants with ID and targets simultaneously in a spatial field. The increased relative autonomy index was noted in participants with ID. They also improved response accuracy in Eriksen Flanker Test because they were requested to evaluate, analyze, and take the appropriate actions at all times during practice. Thus, the demanding of inclusive soccer activities might promote sport motivation in participants with ID and lead to different cognitive benefits in participants with ID and their partners respectively. Future research is needed to examine with a larger sample size. In addition, more cognitive and physiological measures should be applied to explore the underlying mechanisms among individuals with ID.

Keywords

Inclusion Soccer Working memory Attention Sport motivation Intellectual disabilities 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We appreciate Amanda Bailey, Emily Wood, Emily Wise, Meredith Bass, Rebekah Shirley, Mary Enger, Aimee Pride, Olivia Lauren, Beth Brinkley, Katie McWhirter, Hannah Hardwick, Madelyn Winstead, and Meg Crocker who were the students who helped with data collection and participated in soccer practice as partners.

Funding

This research was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea Grant funded by the Korean Government (MOE) (NRF-2017S1A2A2039405) and Mississippi State University College of Education Undergraduate Research Grant.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants as well as their parents/gurdians included in the study.

Conflict of Interest

The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare in reference to this work.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of KinesiologyMississippi State UniversityMS StateUSA
  2. 2.Department of Sports, Leisure, and Recreation, College of Natural ScienceSoonchunhyang UniversityAsanSouth Korea

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