Psychological Benefits of Inclusive Soccer Program in Young Adults with and without Intellectual Disabilities
This study was aimed at investigating the effects of the inclusive soccer program on psychological benefits in young adults with and without intellectual disabilities (ID). In the current study, sport motivation, measured as the relative autonomy index, visuo-spatial working memory and selective attention aspects of executive function, measured as the computerized Corsi Block Tapping Test and Eriksen Flanker Test were assessed. Ten participants with ID and ten typical partners practiced soccer activities together for 50-min each session, twice a week for fifteen-week long. The whole practice sessions were monitored at moderate exercise intensity. Measures were tested at pre- and post- program. Our results indicated that the typical partners improved the performance in Corsi Block Tapping Test because partners needed to search and select participants with ID and targets simultaneously in a spatial field. The increased relative autonomy index was noted in participants with ID. They also improved response accuracy in Eriksen Flanker Test because they were requested to evaluate, analyze, and take the appropriate actions at all times during practice. Thus, the demanding of inclusive soccer activities might promote sport motivation in participants with ID and lead to different cognitive benefits in participants with ID and their partners respectively. Future research is needed to examine with a larger sample size. In addition, more cognitive and physiological measures should be applied to explore the underlying mechanisms among individuals with ID.
KeywordsInclusion Soccer Working memory Attention Sport motivation Intellectual disabilities
We appreciate Amanda Bailey, Emily Wood, Emily Wise, Meredith Bass, Rebekah Shirley, Mary Enger, Aimee Pride, Olivia Lauren, Beth Brinkley, Katie McWhirter, Hannah Hardwick, Madelyn Winstead, and Meg Crocker who were the students who helped with data collection and participated in soccer practice as partners.
This research was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea Grant funded by the Korean Government (MOE) (NRF-2017S1A2A2039405) and Mississippi State University College of Education Undergraduate Research Grant.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants as well as their parents/gurdians included in the study.
Conflict of Interest
The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare in reference to this work.
- Chen, C. C., Ringenbach, S. D. R., Crews, D., Kulinna, P. H., & Amazeen, E. L. (2015). The association between a single bout of moderate physical activity and executive function in young adults with Down syndrome: A preliminary study. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 59(7), 589–598.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Davis, C. L., Tomporowski, P. D., McDowell, J. E., Austin, B. P., Miller, P. H., Yanasak, N. E., Allison, J. D., . . . Naglieri, J. A. (2011). Exercise improves executive function and achievement and alters brain activation in overweight children: A randomized controlled trial. Health Psychology, 30(1), 91–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Fernhall, B. O., McCubbin, J. A., Pitetti, K. H., Rintala, P. A. U. L. I., Rimmer, J. H., Millar, A. L., & De Silva, A. N. T. O. N. I. O. (2001). Prediction of maximal heart rate in individuals with mental retardation. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 33(10), 1655–1660.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Honeycutt, A. A., Grosse, S. D., Dunlap, L. J., Schendel, D. E., Chen, H., Brann, E., & al Homsi, G. (2003). Economic costs of mental retardation, cerebral palsy, hearing loss, and vision impairment. In Using survey data to study disability: Results from the National Health Survey on disability (pp. 207–228). Emerald Group Publishing Limited.Google Scholar
- Ringenbach, S. D., Albert, A. R., Chen, C. C., & Alberts, J. L. (2014). Acute bouts of assisted cycling improves cognitive and upper extremity movement functions in adolescents with down syndrome. Mental Retardation, 52(2), 124–135.Google Scholar
- Schalock, R., Borthwick-Duffy, S., Bradley, V., Buntinx, W., Coulter, D., Craig, E., et al. (2010). Intellectual disability: Definition, classification, and systems of support (11th ed.). Washington: American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities.Google Scholar
- Siperstein, G. N., Norins, J., Corbin, S., & Shriver, T. (2003). Estudio multinacional de actitudes hacia las personas con discapacidad intelectual. Washington: Center for Social Development and Education. University of Massachusetts. Boston. Comité Olímpico Internacional.Google Scholar