Effect of Video Embedded with Hotspots with Dynamic Text on Single-Word Recognition by Children with Multiple Disabilities

  • Christine HolyfieldEmail author
  • Jessica Caron
  • Janice Light
  • David McNaughton


The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effects of an intervention on single-word recognition. The intervention used an AAC app programmed with video visual scene displays (VSDs) embedded with hotspots with the Transition to Literacy (T2L) feature. Three school-aged children with multiple disabilities who had limited speech and limited literacy skills participated in a multiple baseline across participants design. Four names of characters in favorite movies and shows served as target words for each participant. All three children demonstrated an increase in accurate identification of target words from baseline to intervention. Tau-U effect sizes for the three participants were 0.69, 0.76, and 0.84, all of which were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Professionals can consider including the intervention evaluated in the current study as one component of literacy intervention for school-aged children with multiple disabilities. Future research should further evaluate video VSDs and the T2L feature for use with individuals with multiple disabilities.


Augmentative and alternative communication Multiple disabilities Single-word recognition Mobile technology Video visual scene displays 



This work was supported by the National Institute on Disability, Independent Living, and Rehabilitation Research (NIDILRR) under grant number #90RE5017 to the Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center on Augmentative and Alternative Communication (RERC on AAC). The video VSD app, the AAC technology utilized in the current study, was developed by InvoTek, Inc. under the RERC on AAC.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed involving human participants were approved by the first author's institutional review board.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from a guardian of each of the participants.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Rehabilitation, Human Resources, and Communication DisordersUniversity of ArkansasFayettevilleUSA
  2. 2.Department of Communication Sciences and DisordersPennsylvania State UniversityState CollegeUSA
  3. 3.Department of Educational Psychology, Counseling, and Special EducationPennsylvania State UniversityState CollegeUSA

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