Advertisement

Self-Monitoring and Monetary Reinforcement Increases Rate of Walking in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

  • Diego Valbuena
  • Raymond MiltenbergerEmail author
  • Cynthia Livingston
  • Lindsey Slattery
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
  • 89 Downloads

Abstract

Physical inactivity is a widespread problem associated with numerous health problems and many individuals with intellectual disabilities are physically inactive. This study used an ABAB design to evaluate a session-based self-monitoring and monetary reinforcement intervention for increasing walking by adults with intellectual disabilities at a worksite. The intervention resulted in a noticeable increase in the rate of walking for all five participants, with consistent increases for four participants. This study also evaluated if staff could correctly implement the intervention. The staff member implemented the treatment with high fidelity, and the higher rates of walking observed when the researchers implemented the intervention were maintained when staff implemented the intervention. The participants and the staff member rated the intervention as effective and acceptable.

Keywords

Walking Pedometers Financial incentives Monetary contingency management Intellectual disabilities 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. The University of South Florida Institutional Review Board reviewed and approved this study protocol.

Informed Consent

All participants provided written informed consent prior to enrolling in the study.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.

References

  1. Bartlo, P., & Klein, P. J. (2011). Physical activity benefits and needs in adults with intellectual disabilities: Systematic review of the literature. American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 116, 220–232.  https://doi.org/10.1352/1944-7558-116.3.220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bennett, F., Eisenman, P., French, R., Henderson, H., & Shultz, B. (1989). The effect of a token economy on the exercise behavior of individuals with down syndrome. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 6, 230–246.  https://doi.org/10.1123/apaq.6.3.230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2007). Physical activity amongst adults with a disability- United States 2005. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 56, 1021–1024.Google Scholar
  4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014). Vital signs: Disability and physical activity — United States, 2009–2012. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 63, 407–413.Google Scholar
  5. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2015a). Glossary of terms. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/physicalactivity/basics/glossary/index.htm.
  6. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2015b). How much physical activity do adults need?. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/physicalactivity/basics/adults/index.htm
  7. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2015c). Increasing physical activity among adults with disabilities. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/disabilityandhealth/pa.html
  8. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2015d). Measuring Physical activity intensity. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/physicalactivity/basics/measuring/heartrate.htm.
  9. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2015e). Physical activity and health. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/physicalactivity/basics/pa-health/.
  10. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2015f). Nutrition, physical activity and obesity: Data, trends, and maps. Retrieved from https://nccd.cdc.gov/NPAO_DTM/
  11. Donlin-Washington, W., McMullen, D., & Devoto, A. (2016). A matched deposit contract intervention to increase physical activity in underactive and sedentary adults. Translational Issues in Psychological Science, 2, 101–115.Google Scholar
  12. Heller, T., McCubbin, J. A., Drum, C., & Peterson, J. (2011). Physical activity and nutrition health promotion interventions: What is working for people with intellectual disabilities? Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 49, 26–36.  https://doi.org/10.1352/1934-9556-49.1.26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Janz, K. F., Burns, T. L., Torner, J. C., Levy, S. M., Paulos, R., Willing, M. C., & Warren, J. J. (2001). Physical activity and bone measures in young children: The Iowa bone development study. Pediatrics, 107, 1387–1393.  https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.107.6.1387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Krentz, H., Miltenberger, R. G., & Valbuena, D. A. (2016). Using token reinforcement to increase walking for adults with intellectual disabilities. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 49, 745–750.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jaba.326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kurti, A. N., & Dallery, J. (2013). Internet-based contingency management increases walking in sedentary adults. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 46, 568–581.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jaba.58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kurti, A. N., Davis, D., Redner, R., Jarvis, B., Zvorsky, I., Keith, D. R., et al. (2016). A review of the literature on remote monitoring technology in incentive-based interventions for health-related behavior change. Translational Issues in Psychological Science, 2, 128–152.  https://doi.org/10.1037/tps0000067.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. LaLonde, K. B., MacNeill, B. R., Eversole, L. W., Ragotzy, S. P., & Poling, A. (2014). Increasing physical activity in young adults with autism spectrum disorders. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorder, 8, 1679–1684.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2014.09.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lang, R., Koegel, L. K., Ashbaugh, K., Regester, A., Ence, W., & Smith, W. (2010). Physical exercise and individuals with autism spectrum disorders: A systematic review. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorder, 4, 565–576.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2010.01.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Mavrovouniotis, F. (2012). Inactivity in childhood and adolescence: A modern lifestyle associated with adverse health consequences. Sport Science Review, 21, 75–99.  https://doi.org/10.2478/v10237-012-0011-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Sääkslahti, A., Numminen, P., Varstala, V., Helenius, H., Tammi, A., Viikari, J., & Välimäki, I. (2004). Physical activity as a preventive measure for coronary heart disease risk factors in early childhood. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 14, 143–149.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0838.2004.00347.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Schneider, P. L., Crouter, S. E., Lukajic, O., & Bassett, D. R. (2003). Accuracy and reliability of 10 pedometers for measuring steps over a 400-m walk. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35, 1779–1784.  https://doi.org/10.1249/01.MSS.0000089342.96098.C4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Schneider, P. L., Crouter, S. E., & Bassett, D. R. (2004). Pedometer measures of free-living physical activity: Comparison of 13 models. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36, 331–335.  https://doi.org/10.1249/01.MSS.0000113486.60548.E9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Tudor-Locke, C., Craig, C. L., Aoyagi, Y., Bell, R. C., Croteau, K. A., De Bourdeaudhuij, I., et al. (2011a). How many steps/day are enough? For older adults and special populations. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 8(80), 1–19.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1479-5868-8-80.Google Scholar
  24. Tudor-Locke, C., Craig, C. L., Brown, W. J., Clemes, S. A., De Cocker, K., Giles-Corti, B., et al. (2011b). How many steps/day are enough? For adults. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 8, 70.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1479-5868-8-79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2008). 2008 physical activity guidelines. Retrieved from http://health.gov/paguidelines/guidelines/
  26. World Health Organization. (2017). Factsheets: Physical activity. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs385/en/.
  27. Zerger, H. M., Miller, B. G., Valbuena, D., & Miltenberger, R. G. (2017). Effects of student pairing and public review on physical activity during school recess. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 50, 531–537.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jaba.389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Diego Valbuena
    • 1
  • Raymond Miltenberger
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Cynthia Livingston
    • 1
  • Lindsey Slattery
    • 1
  1. 1.University of South FloridaTampaUSA
  2. 2.Department of Child and Family StudiesTampaUSA

Personalised recommendations