Reliability and Validity of the Turkish Version of the Abiloco-Kids

  • Ramazan Yildiz
  • Erkan Erol
  • Ayşe Simsek
  • Umut Apaydin
  • Derya Gokmen
  • Bulent Elbasan


ABILOCO-Kids is a scale that assesses the walking ability of children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) from the viewpoint of parental perception. The aim of this study was to translate the ABILOCO-Kids scale into Turkish and to establish its reliability and validity in children with CP. Turkish children were recruited in this study. ABILOCO-Kids is a scale developed by Caty and et al. This scale assess the walking ability of children with CP focusing on the activity domain of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). The ABILOCO-Kids scale was translated from English into Turkish using the forward-backward-forward method. The motor functions of the 63 children participating in the study were evaluated by the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) and the Gross Motor Function Measurement-88 (GMFM-88). The ABILOCO-Kids scale was repeated in 30 children after one week to establish test-retest reliability. While internal and external construct validity were investigated using Rasch analysis and Spearman correlation coefficient, respectively; reliability was evaluated in terms of internal consistency by Cronbach’s alpha and Person Separation Index (PSI). All items of the ABILOCO-Kids were found to fit the Rasch Model (chi-square 14.35 (df = 20), p = 0.813). The internal construct validity was good, overall mean item fit residual was −0.109 (SD: 0.719) and mean person fit residual was −0.215 (SD: 0.817). The reliability was good with Cronbach’s Alpha of 0.98 and PSI of 0.99. When the test-retest was examined via Differential Item Functioning (DIF) by time, none of the items showed DIF. Spearman correlation coefficients of the ABILOCO-Kids scale in relation to the GMFM and GMFCS were r = 0.824, p < 0.001; r = −0.788, p < 0.001 respectively. The Turkish version of the ABILOCO-Kids scale is a valid, reliable and unidimensional scale for children with CP. This scale will allow the differences in the locomotion of children with CP to be evaluated from the perspective of the family.


Cerebral palsy Validity Translation Locomotion Rasch model 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Conflict of Interest

Authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ramazan Yildiz
    • 1
  • Erkan Erol
    • 1
  • Ayşe Simsek
    • 1
  • Umut Apaydin
    • 1
  • Derya Gokmen
    • 2
  • Bulent Elbasan
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Health SciencesGazi UniversityAnkaraTurkey
  2. 2.Department of BiostatisticsAnkara University Faculty of MedicineAnkaraTurkey

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