Teaching Joint Attention and Peer to Peer Communication Using the Cool Versus Not Cool Procedure in a Large Group Setting

  • Christine Milne
  • Jeremy A. Leaf
  • Justin B. Leaf
  • Joseph H. Cihon
  • Norma Torres
  • Donna Townley-Cochran
  • Mitchell Taubman
  • Ronald Leaf
  • John McEachin
  • Misty Oppeheim-Leaf
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
  • 51 Downloads

Abstract

This study evaluated the use of the cool versus not cool procedure to teach sixteen children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder how to initiate or respond to bids for joint attention and how to increase peer to peer communication with their peers. The cool versus not cool procedure consisted of the teacher modeling the targeted social behaviors both the cool (i.e., appropriate) and not cool (i.e., inappropriate) way, having the participants discriminate if the model was cool or not cool, having the participants state reasons why the model was cool or not cool, and having the participants role-play the targeted social behavior. All instruction was provided in a group format. Using a non-concurrent multiple baseline design across skills and participants the results showed that the cool versus not cool procedure was successful, with the majority of participants acquiring the two social behaviors and maintaining these behaviors after intervention had concluded.

Keywords

Cool versus not cool Discrimination Joint attention Modeling Role-playing Peer to peer communication 

References

  1. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Arlington: American Psychiatric Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Au, A., Mountjoy, T., Leaf, J. B., Leaf, R., Taubman, M., McEachin, J., & Tsuji, K. (2016). Teaching social behaviour to individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder using the cool versus not cool procedure in a small group instructional format. Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability, 41(2), 115–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Charman, T., Swettenham, J., Baron-Cohen, S., Cox, A., Baird, G., & Drew, A. (1997). Infants with autism: An investigation of empathy, pretend play, joint attention, and imitation. Developmental Psychology, 5, 781–789.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cooper, J. O., Heron, T. E., & Heward, W. L. (2007). Applied behavior analysis (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River: Pearson.Google Scholar
  5. Horner, R. H., Carr, E. G., Halle, J., McGee, G., Odom, S., & Wolery, M. (2005). The use of single-subject research to identify evidence-based practice in special education. Exceptional Children, 71, 165–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Jones, E. A., & Carr, E. G. (2004). Joint attention in children with autism: Theory and intervention. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 19(1), 13–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Jones, E. A., & Feely, K. M. (2009). Parent implemented joint attention intervention for preschoolers with autism. Best of JSLP-ABA, 4, 74–89.Google Scholar
  8. Laugeson, E. A., Frankel, F., Mogil, C., & Dillon, A. R. (2009). Parent-assisted social skills training to improve friendships in teens with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39, 596–606.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Leaf, J. B., Tsuji, K. H., Griggs, B., Edwards, A., Taubman, M., McEachin, J., Leaf, R., & Oppenheim-Leaf, M. L. (2012). Teaching social skills to children with autism using the cool versus not cool procedure. Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 47, 165–175.Google Scholar
  10. Leaf, J. B., Taubman, M., Leaf, J., Dale, S., Tsuji, K., Kassardjian, A., Alcalay, A., Milne, C., Mitchell, E., Townley-Cochran, D., Leaf, R., & McEachin, J. (2015a). Teaching social interaction skills using cool versus not cool. Child & Family Behavior Therapy, 37, 321–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Leaf, J. B., Townley-Cochran, D., Taubman, M., Cihon, J. H., Oppenheim-Leaf, M. L., Kassardjian, A., et al. (2015b). The teaching interaction procedure and behavioral skills training for individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder: A review and commentary. Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 2(4), 402–413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Leaf, J. B., Leaf, J. A., Milne, C., Taubman, M., Oppenheim-Leaf, M., Torres, N., Townley-Cochran, D., Leaf, R., McEachin, J., & Yoder, P. (2016a). An evaluation of a behaviorally based social skills group for individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. Google Scholar
  13. Leaf, J. A., Leaf, J. B., Milne, C., Townley-Cochran, D., Oppenheim-Leaf, M. L., Cihon, J. H., et al. (2016b). The effects of the cool versus not cool procedure to teach social game play to individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Behavior Analysis in Practice, 9(1), 34–49.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Leaf, J. B., Taubman, M., Milne, C., Dale, S., Leaf, J., Townley-Cochran, D., et al. (2016c). Teaching social communication skills using a cool versus not cool procedure plus role-playing and a social skills taxonomy. Education and Treatment of Children, 39(1), 44–63.Google Scholar
  15. Macdonald, R., Anderson, J., Dube, W., Geckeler, A., Green, G., Holcomb, W., Mansfield, R., & Sanchez, J. (2006). Behavioral assessment of joint attention: A methodological report. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 27(2), 138–150.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Mundy, P., Sigman, M., & Kasari, C. (1994). Joint attention, developmental level, and symptom presentation in autism. Development and Psychopathology, 6(3), 389–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Pollard, J. S., Betz, A. M., & Higbee, T. S. (2012). Script fading to promote unscripted bids for joint attention in children with autism. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 45, 387–393.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. Sarokoff, R. A., & Sturmey, P. (2004). The effects of behavioral skills training on staff implementation of discrete-trial teaching. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 37, 535–538.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. Sarokoff, R. A., Taylor, B. A., & Poulson, C. L. (2001). Teaching children with autism to engage in conversational exchanges: Script fading with embedded textual stimuli. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 34, 81–84.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Taubman, M. T., Leaf, R. B., McEachin, J., & Driscoll, M. (2011). Crafting connections: Contemporary applied behavior analysis for enriching the social lives of persons with autism spectrum disorder. DRL Books.Google Scholar
  21. Taylor, B. A., & Hoch, H. (2008). Teaching children with autism to respond to and initiate bids for joint attention. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 41, 377–391.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Watson, P. J., & Workman, E. A. (1981). The non-current multiple baseline design across-individuals design: An extension of the traditional multiple baseline design. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 12(3), 257–259.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. White, P. J., O’Reilly, M., Streusand, W., Levine, A., Sigafoos, J., Lancioni, G., Fragale, C., Pierce, N., & Aguilar, J. (2011). Best practices for teaching joint attention: A systematic review of the intervention literature. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 5(4), 1283–1295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Wichnick, A. M., Vener, S. M., Pytrek, M., & Poulson, C. L. (2010). The effect of script-fading procedure on responses to peer initiations among young children with autism. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 4, 290–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christine Milne
    • 1
  • Jeremy A. Leaf
    • 1
  • Justin B. Leaf
    • 1
    • 2
  • Joseph H. Cihon
    • 1
    • 2
  • Norma Torres
    • 1
  • Donna Townley-Cochran
    • 1
  • Mitchell Taubman
    • 1
  • Ronald Leaf
    • 1
  • John McEachin
    • 1
  • Misty Oppeheim-Leaf
    • 1
  1. 1.Autism Partnership FoundationSeal BeachUSA
  2. 2.Endicott CollegeBeverlyUSA

Personalised recommendations