Observation System for Analyzing Individual Boccia BC3

  • Daniel Lapresa
  • Gorka Santesteban
  • Javier Arana
  • M. Teresa Anguera
  • Sonia Aragón


Boccia is a Paralympic sport for athletes with locomotor dysfunction. The aim of this observational methodology study was to describe the design of an ad hoc observation instrument for analyzing individual boccia in the BC3 category (for athletes with severe functional impairment) and to show how it can be used in a practical setting to analyze technical and tactical aspects of the game. The observation instrument was designed based on the internal logic and rules of boccia and was then loaded into the Lince software program to create a simple coding tool. The content of the instrument was validated by a panel of experts with extensive experience in Paralympic boccia. The reliability of the resulting data was confirmed by analysis of interobserver agreement, with high kappa values obtained for all criteria. The practical application of the observation system was demonstrated by performing T-pattern analysis of two sample datasets, which revealed underlying behavioral patterns for isolated throws (synchronic) and successive throws (diachronic).


Boccia BC3 Observation system Validity Reliability Practical applications 



We gratefully acknowledge the support of both Spanish government projects: La actividad física y el deporte como potenciadores del estilo de vida saludable: Evaluación del comportamiento deportivo desde metodologías no intrusivas (Secretaría de Estado de Investigación, Desarrollo e Innovación del Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad) during the period 2016-2018 [Grant DEP2015-66069-P (MINECO/FEDER, UE)], and Avances metodológicos y tecnológicos en el estudio observacional del comportamiento deportivo (Secretaría de Estado de Investigación, Desarrollo e Innovación del Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad) during the period 2015-2017 [Grant PSI2015-71947-REDT]. In addition, the authors thank the support of the Generalitat de Catalunya Research Group, Grup de recerca i innovació en dissenys (GRID), Tecnología i aplicació multimedia i digital als dissenys observacionals [Grant number 2014 SGR 971]. Also, this study was funded by grants from the University of La Rioja.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Conflict of Interest

Daniel Lapresa, Gorka Santesteban, Javier Arana, M. Teresa Anguera y Belén Garzón declare that we have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Educational SciencesUniversity of La RiojaLogroñoSpain
  2. 2.Department of EducationInternational University of La Rioja (UNIR)LogroñoSpain
  3. 3.Faculty of Psychology, Institute of Brain, Cognition and BehaviorUniversity of BarcelonaBarcelonaSpain

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