Comparison of Parenting Stress in Different Developmental Disabilities
- 1.6k Downloads
Research has shown that parents of children with special health care needs experience more parenting stress than parents of typically developing children, but the relation between the type of disability and parenting stress is far from clear (Stein 1988; Tew and Lawrence 1975; Breslau et al. 1982; Miller et al. 1992). To explore the relation between the type of disability and parenting stress, parenting stress data on the Parenting Stress Index (PSI) (Abidin 1995) and demographic information were collected from convenience samples of parents of four cohorts of children: children with ADHD, children with developmental disabilities, children with HIV infection and children with asthma, and typically developing children. Parents of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and parents of children with developmental disabilities (DD) reported higher total stress than parents of HIV-infected, asthmatic, and typically developing children. Ethnicity did not explain any of the group differences, but caregiver’s language, education, employment status, and overall life stresses explained some of the group differences in parent-related domains. Level of stress in parents of children with special needs is determined by overall nature of the disorder, with the parents of children with ADHD and developmental disorders reporting higher levels of parenting stress than children with HIV infection, asthma, and healthy controls.
KeywordsParenting stress Children with disabilities Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Asthma Developmental disabilities HIV-1 infection
This research was supported in part by project 5 H02 MC 00071 from the Maternal and Child Health Bureau (Title V, Social Security Act), Health Resources and Services Administration, Department of Health and Human Services.
I wish to thank Paul Visintainer, PhD, Program Director of Health Quantitative Sciences, New York Medical College, for his guidance in statistical analysis. I wish to acknowledge the assistance given by Ms. Nayibe Manjarres, program coordinator, in recruiting subjects and entering data for this study.
- Abidin, R. R. (1995). Parenting stress index. Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc. (3rd ed.). Florida: Odessa.Google Scholar
- American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington DC.Google Scholar
- Beckman, P. J. (1992). Comparison of mothers’ and fathers’ perceptions of the effect of young children with and without disabilities. American Journal of Mental Retardation, 95, 585–595.Google Scholar
- Breslau, N., Jessop, D., Reissman, C. K., & Stein R. E. K. (1988). Chronic childhood illness and maternal mental health. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 9, 147–156.Google Scholar
- Breslau, N., Staruch, K. S., & Mortimer E. A. (1982). Psychological distress in mothers of disabled children. American Journal of Diseases of Childhood, 136, 682–686.Google Scholar
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (1994). 1994 revised classification system for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in children less than 13 years of age. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports, 43, 1–10.Google Scholar
- Conners, C. K. (1997). Conners’ rating scales: Revised technical manual. Tonawanda, NY: Multi-Health Systems.Google Scholar
- Farran, D., Metzger, J., & Sparling, J. (1986). Immediate and continuing adaptations in parents of handicapped children. In J. J. Gallagher, & P. M. Vietze (Eds), Families of handicapped persons. (pp. 143–146). Baltimore, MD: Paul Brookes.Google Scholar
- Folkman, S., Schafer, C., & Lazarus, R. C. (1979). Cognitive processes as mediators of stress and coping. In V. Hamilton, & D. W. Warburton (Eds), Human stress and cognition. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Godfrey, K. (1986). In Bailar III J. C., & Mosteller F (Eds). Medical uses of statistics. Waltham, MA: NEJM Books.Google Scholar
- Hughes, D., Blazer, D., & Hybels, C. (1993). Duke’s Social Support Index (DSSI): A Working Paper (Revised). Manuscript, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC.Google Scholar
- Lopez-Vasquez, A. (1999). Parent/professional partnerships for children with special health care needs. A paper presented at Excelencia en educacion. The role of parents in the education of their children, New York, NY.Google Scholar
- Norusis, M. J. (1998). SPSS/Pc+TM v2.0 Base Manual for the IBM PC/XT/AT and PS2. Chicago IL: PSS.Google Scholar
- Solis, M. L., & Abidin, R. R. (1991). The Spanish version Parenting Stress Index: A psychometric study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 20, 372–378.Google Scholar
- Stein, R. E. K., ed (1988). Caring for children with chronic illness: Issues and strategies. New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar