Wheelchair-Bound Persons with Multiple Disabilities Learning to Use Simple Foot–Leg Responses Within a Microswitch-Based Program

  • Giulio E. Lancioni
  • Nirbhay N. Singh
  • Mark F. O'Reilly
  • Giorgia Piazzolla
  • Sara Pidala
  • Doretta Oliva
Article

Abstract

Two wheelchair-bound adults with multiple disabilities were taught to use simple foot-leg responses to control environmental stimulation within a microswitch-based program.During the program, recording was also made of their mood (indices of happiness) and interviews were conducted with 10 health professionals on the possible benefits of the foot-leg responses.Data showed that both participants learned to use the foot-leg responses andmaintained them at high frequencies during the course of the study lasting about 3 months.They also had a substantial increase in their indices of happiness.Interview data indicated that the foot-leg responses were considered benefi-cial in terms of body awareness and muscular trophism. Implications of the findings are discussed.

Key Words

foot–leg responses indices of happiness microswitches multiple disabilities wheelchair-bound persons 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Crawford, M. R., and Schuster, J. W. (1993). Using microswitches to teach toy use. J. Dev. Phys. Disabil. 5: 349–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Dewson, M. R. J., and Whitely, J. H. (1987). Sensory reinforcement of head turning with nonambulatory, profoundly mentally retarded persons. Res. Dev. Disabil. 8: 413–426.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Fetters, L., and Kluzik, J. (1996). The effects of neurodevelopmental treatment versus practice on the reaching of children with spastic cerebral palsy. Phys. Ther. 76: 346–358.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Glickman, L., Deitz, J., Anson, D., and Stewart, K. (1996). The effect of switch control site on computer skills of infants and toddlers. Am. J. Occup. Ther. 50: 545–553.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Green, C. W., and Reid, D. H. (1999). A behavioral approach to identifying sources of happiness and unhappiness among individuals with profound multiple disabilities. Behav. Modif. 23: 280–293.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Gutowski, S. J. (1996). Response acquisition for music or beverages in adults with profound multiple handicaps. J. Dev. Phys. Disabil. 8: 221–231.Google Scholar
  7. Hitosugi, M., Niwa, M., and Takatsu, A. (2000). Rheologic changes in venous blood during prolonged sitting. Thromb. Res. 100: 409–412.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Holburn, S., Nguyen, D., and Vietze, P. M. (2004). Computer-assisted learning for adults with profound multiple disabilities. Behav. Interv. 19: 25–37.Google Scholar
  9. Hopman, M. T., Groothuis, J. T., Flendrie, M., Gerrits, K. H., and Houtman, S. (2002). Increased vascular resistance in paralyzed legs after spinal cord injury is reversible by training. J. Appl. Physiol. 93: 1966–1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Horn, E. M., Warren, S. F., and Jones, H. A. (1995). An experimental analysis of a neurobehavioral motor intervention. Dev. Med. Child Neurol. 37: 697–714.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Kaplan, R. E., Czyrny, J. J., Fung, T. S., Unsworth, J. D., and Hirsh, J. (2002). Electrical foot stimulation and implications of the prevention of venous thromboembolic disease. Thromb. Haemostasis 88: 200–204.Google Scholar
  12. Ketelaar, M., Vermeer, A., Hart, H., van Petegem-van Beek, E., and Helders, P. J. (2001). Effects of a functional therapy program on motor abilities of children with cerebral palsy. Phys. Ther. 81: 1534–1545.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Ko, M. L. B., McConachie, H., and Jolleff, N. (1998). Outcome of recommendations for augmentative communication in children. Child Care Health Dev. 24: 195–205.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lancioni, G. E., and Lems, S. (2001). Using a microswitch for vocalization responses with persons with multiple disabilities. Disabil. Rehabil. 23: 745–748.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Lancioni, G. E., O'Reilly, M. F., Oliva, D., and Coppa, M. M. (2001). A microswitch for vocalization responses to foster environmental control in children with multiple disabilities. J. Intell. Disabil. Res. 45: 271–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lancioni, G. E., O'Reilly, M. F., Singh, N. N., Oliva, D., Campodonico, F., and Groeneweg, J. (2003). Stimulation and microswitch-based programs for enhancing indices of happiness: A maintenance assessment. Behav. Interv. 18: 53–61.Google Scholar
  17. Lancioni, G. E., O'Reilly, M. F., Singh, N. N., Oliva, D., Campodonico, F., Marziani, M., and Oliva, D. (2004). A microswitch program to foster simple foot and leg movements in adult wheelchair users with multiple disabilities. Cogn. Behav. Ther. 33: 137–142.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Lancioni, G. E., O'Reilly, M. F., Singh, N. N., Oliva, D., and Groeneweg, J. (2002a). Impact of stimulation versus microswitch-based programs on indices of happiness of people with profound multiple disabilities. Res. Dev. Disabil. 23: 149–160.Google Scholar
  19. Lancioni, G. E., O'Reilly, M. F., Singh, N. N., Oliva, D., Piazzolla, G., Pirani, P., and Groeneweg, J. (2002b). Evaluating the use of multiple microswitches and responses for children with multiple disabilities. J. Intell. Disabil. Res. 46: 346–351.Google Scholar
  20. Leatherby, J. G., Gast, D. L., Wolery, M., and Collins, B. C. (1992). Assessment of reinforcer preference in multi-handicapped students. J. Dev. Phys. Disabil. 4: 15–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Linderman, T. M., and Stewart, K. B. (1999). Sensory integrative-based occupational therapy and functional outcomes in young children with pervasive developmental disorders: A single-subject study. Am. J. Occup. Ther. 53: 207–213.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Matson, J. L., Bamburg, J. W., and Smalls, Y. (2004). An analysis of snoezelen equiment to reinforce persons with severe and profound mental retardation. Res. Develop. Disabil. 25: 89–95.Google Scholar
  23. Miltenberger, R. (1997). Behavior Modification: Principles and Procedures, Brooks/Cole, New York.Google Scholar
  24. Mount, H., and Cavet, J. (1995). Multi-sensory environments: An exploration of their potential for young people with profound and multiple learning disabilities. Br. J. Spec. Educ. 22: 52–55.Google Scholar
  25. Paqueron, X., Leguen, M., Rosenthal, D., Coriat, P., Willer, J. C., and Danziger, N. (2003). The phenomenology of body image distortions by regional anaesthesia. Brain 126: 702–712.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Perrin, M., and Guex, J. J. (2000). Edema and leg volume: Methods of assessments. Angiology 51: 9–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Richards, S. B., Taylor, R. L., Ramasamy, R., and Richards, R. Y. (1999). Single subject research: Applications in Educational and Clinical Settings, Wadsworth, London.Google Scholar
  28. Saunders, M. D., Questad, K. A., Kedziorski, T. L., Boase, B. C., Patterson, E. A., and Cullinan, T. B. (2001). Unprompted mechanical switch use in individuals with severe multiple disabilities: An evaluation of the effects of body position. J. Dev. Phys. Disabil. 13: 27–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Saunders, M. D., Smagner, J. P., and Saunders, R. R. (2003). Improving methodological and technological analyses of adaptive switch use of individuals with profound multiple impairments. Behav. Interv. 18: 227–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Stein, R. B., Chong, S. L., James, K. B., Kido, A., Bell, G. J., Tubman, L. A., and Belanger, M. (2002). Electrical stimulation for therapy and mobility after spinal cord injury. Prog. Brain Res. 137: 27–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Stein, R. B., Roetenberg, D., Chong, S. L., and James, K. B. (2003). A wheelchair modified for leg propulsion using voluntary activity or electrical stimulation. Med. Eng. Phys. 25: 11–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Stranden, E. (2000). Dynamic leg volume changes when sitting in a locked and free floating tilt office chair. Ergonomics 43: 421–433.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Sullivan, M. W., Laverick, D. H., and Lewis, M. (1995). Fostering environmental control in a young child with Rett syndrome: A case study. J. Autism Dev. Disord. 25: 215–221.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Watson, P. J., and Workman, E. A. (1981). The non-concurrent multiple baseline across-individuals design: An extension of the traditional multiple baseline design. J. Behav. Ther. Exp. Psychiatry 12: 257–259.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Wehmeyer, M., and Schwartz, M. (1998). The relationship between self-determination and quality of life for adults with mental retardation. Educ. Train. Mental Retard. Dev. Disabil. 33: 3–12.Google Scholar
  36. Winkel, J., and Jorgensen, K. (1986). Swelling of the foot, its vascular volume and systemic hemoconcentration during long-term constrained sitting. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. Occup. Physiol. 55: 162–166.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Giulio E. Lancioni
    • 1
    • 5
  • Nirbhay N. Singh
    • 2
  • Mark F. O'Reilly
    • 3
  • Giorgia Piazzolla
    • 4
  • Sara Pidala
    • 4
  • Doretta Oliva
    • 4
  1. 1.University of BariBariItaly
  2. 2.ONE Research InstituteChesterfield
  3. 3.University of Texas at AustinAustin
  4. 4.Lega F. D'Oro Research CenterOsimoItaly
  5. 5.Department of PsychologyUniversity of BariBariItaly

Personalised recommendations