Comparing MMPI-2-Restructured Form Scores by Service Era for Veterans Assessed Within the Veteran Affairs Healthcare System

  • Paul B. IngramEmail author
  • Anthony M. Tarescavage
  • Yossef S. Ben-Porath
  • Mary E. Oehlert


This study compares profiles of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) scale scores from 1492 VA test-takers who served during the Vietnam or Gulf War service eras. The sample includes all such cases collected at any VA posttraumatic stress disorder Clinical Teams across the United States between January 1, 2008 and May 31, 2015 using the MMPI-2 or MMPI-2-RF (via the VA Mental Health Assistant suite). Associations between gender and score differences were also examined. In contrast to past research using the MMPI-2, results of this study suggest that veterans are generally homogeneous in their MMPI-2-RF profiles across different periods of service. Specifically, the magnitudes of mean differences are small and not clinically significant. Thus, responses on the MMPI-2-RF do not appear influenced by service era. Implications for the clinical use of, and research with, the MMPI-2-RF are discussed within the VA healthcare system.


MMPI-2-RF Veteran Affairs Psychological assessment Service era 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

Yossef Ben-Porath is a paid consultant to the MMPI Publisher, the University of Minnesota, and Distributor, Pearson. He receives research funds from the University of Minnesota and as co-author of the MMPI-2-RF, he receives royalties on sales of the test. Anthony Tarescavage receives research funding from the University of Minnesota Press. Paul Ingram receives research funding from Pearson Clinical Assessments. Mary E. Oehlert declares no conflicts of interest.

Human and Animal Rights

All procedures performed in this study involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed Consent

This study utilized an anonymous retrospective database on which analyses were conducted. As such, informed consent was obtained from all individual participants in this study for their inclusion.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Psychological SciencesTexas Tech UniversityLubbockUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyJohn Carroll UniversityUniversity HeightsUSA
  3. 3.Department of Psychological SciencesKent State UniversityKentUSA
  4. 4.Dwight D. Eisenhower VAMC, Eastern Kansas Veteran Healthcare SystemLeavenworthUSA

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