Systematic Review: Pain and Emotional Functioning in Pediatric Sickle Cell Disease
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The objective of this systematic review was to assess the relationship between pain (frequency/intensity/duration, impairment, coping) and emotional functioning in pediatric Sickle Cell Disease, and evaluate the state of the literature. Studies were included if they met each of the following criteria: (a) primarily pediatric sample of youth or young adults up to age 21 years with SCD, (b) examined emotional functioning including anxiety and/or depressive and/or internalizing symptoms, and/or affect, (c) examined pain intensity/frequency/duration and/or pain-related impairment and/or pain coping as it relates to emotional functioning, as defined above. Using the established guidelines for systematic reviews, we searched PsycINFO, PubMED, and CINAHL databases for studies published through June 2018. Screening resulted in 33 studies meeting inclusion criteria. Study data were extracted and evaluated for scientific merit, resulting in four studies being removed. 29 studies were included in the final synthesis. Studies provide strongest evidence of a relationship between increased pain frequency and higher depressive and anxiety symptoms. There are moderate-to-strong associations between pain-related impairment and depressive symptoms, and small-to-strong associations between pain-related impairment and anxiety. When examining pain-coping strategies, maladaptive cognitive strategies show the strongest association with emotional functioning. There is a need for more adequately powered, prospective studies based on theoretical frameworks in order to advance our understanding of the relationship between pain and emotional functioning in pediatric SCD.
KeywordsSystematic review Sickle cell disease Pain Depression Anxiety
This work was supported by a grant from the National Institute of General Medical Sciences of the National Institutes of Health (Grant No. P20GM109021) and the Nemours Center for Healthcare Delivery Science of the Nemours Children’s Health System. The authors thank Dr. Melissa Alderfer for her consultation on this systematic review.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
Steven K. Reader, Laura M. Rockman, Katherine M. Okonak, Nicole M. Ruppe, Colleen N. Keeler, and Anne E. Kazak declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
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