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Religiousness and Symptoms of Depression in Native and Immigrant Chronic Dialysis Patients in the Netherlands


For immigrant chronic dialysis patients, religious behavior and religious coping may have a different impact on depressive symptoms compared to native patients. This study aims to describe both cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between religious behavior and coping with symptoms of depression for 281 native and 277 immigrant dialysis patients in the Netherlands. A higher prevalence of depressive symptoms was found in immigrant compared to native patients (49% vs. 36%). No significant cross-sectional or longitudinal associations were found in both groups between religious behavior and positive religious coping with depressive symptoms. Strong significant cross-sectional associations were found between negative religious coping items and depressive symptoms in both groups, while no longitudinal associations were found. So, similar impact of religiousness on the presence of depressive symptoms was found for both native and immigrant dialysis patients. Therefore, these results do not explain the higher prevalence of depressive symptoms found in immigrant chronic dialysis patients compared to native patients.

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This study was funded by the Dutch Kidney Foundation (Grant No. SB174). The Kidney Foundation had no influence in study design whatsoever. We gratefully thank all patients who participated in the DIVERS study. We thank the nurses and participating dialysis centers of the DIVERS study for collection and management of the data, as well as data managers from Nefrovisie for collecting the clinical data.

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Correspondence to G. L. G. Haverkamp.

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All procedures were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional research committee and this study was carried out in consistency with the Declaration of Helsinki, regarding ethical principles for medical research involving humans.

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Appendix A

Appendix A

10-Item RCOPE

Original American version (Pargament, 1999).

Positive (1–5) and negative (6–10) religious coping items:

  1. 1.

    I think about how my life is part of a larger religious force.

  2. 2.

    I work together with God as partners to get through hard times.

  3. 3.

    I look to God for strength, support, and guidance in crises.

  4. 4.

    I try to find the lesson from God in crises.

  5. 5.

    I confess my sins and ask for God’s forgiveness.

  6. 6.

    I feel that stressful situations are God’s way of punishing me for my sins or a lack of spirituality.

  7. 7.

    I wonder whether God has abandoned me.

  8. 8.

    I try to make sense of the situation and decide what to do without relying on God.

  9. 9.

    I question whether God really exists.

  10. 10.

    I express anger at God for letting terrible things happen.

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Haverkamp, G.L.G., Braam, A.W., Loosman, W.L. et al. Religiousness and Symptoms of Depression in Native and Immigrant Chronic Dialysis Patients in the Netherlands. J Clin Psychol Med Settings 27, 127–138 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10880-019-09625-3

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  • Depressive symptoms
  • Immigrant chronic dialysis patients
  • Native chronic dialysis patients
  • Religious coping
  • Religious behavior