The Psychosocial and Independent Living Donor Advocate Evaluation and Post-surgery Care of Living Donors

  • Dianne LaPointe Rudow
  • Kathleen Swartz
  • Chelsea Phillips
  • Jennifer Hollenberger
  • Taylor Smith
  • Jennifer L. SteelEmail author


Solid organ transplantation as a treatment for end stage organ failure has been an accepted treatment option for decades. Despite advances in medicine and technology, and increased awareness of organ donation and transplantation, the gap between supply and demand continues to widen. Living donation has been an option that has increased the number of transplants despite the continued shortage of deceased organs. In the early 2000s live donor transplantation reached an all-time high in the United States. As a result, a consensus meeting was convened in 2000 to increase the oversight of living donor transplantation. Both the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services and the United Network for Organ Sharing developed regulations that transplant programs performing live donor transplantation. These regulations and guidelines involve the education, evaluation, informed consent process and living donor follow-up care. Two areas in which had significant changes included the psychosocial and the independent living donor advocate (ILDA) evaluation. The purpose of this paper was to outline the current regulations and guidelines associated with the psychosocial and ILDA evaluation as well as provide further recommendations for the administration of a high quality evaluation of living donors. The goals and timing of the evaluation and education of donors; qualifications of the health care providers performing the evaluation; components of the evaluation; education provided to donors; documentation of the evaluation; participation in the selection committee meeting; post-decline and post-donation care of donors is described. Caveats including the paired donor exchange programs and non-directed and directed donation are also considered


Living donor Transplantation Psychosocial evaluation Independent living donor advocate Evaluation Education 



To all the donors who allow us to vicariously experience giving the gift of life to others.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

Dianne LaPointe Rudow, Kathleen Swartz, Chelsea Phillips, Jennifer Hollenberger, Taylor Schmick, Jennifer Steel declare that they have no conflict of Interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

All procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000. Informed consent was obtained from all patients for being included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dianne LaPointe Rudow
    • 1
  • Kathleen Swartz
    • 2
  • Chelsea Phillips
    • 3
  • Jennifer Hollenberger
    • 4
  • Taylor Smith
    • 5
  • Jennifer L. Steel
    • 6
    Email author
  1. 1.Recanati Miller Transplant InstituteThe Mount Sinai Medical CenterNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Department of Trauma ServicesBeaumont Health SystemRoyal OakUSA
  3. 3.Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic SurgeryUniversity of Pittsburgh School of MedicinePittsburghUSA
  4. 4.Department of Collaborative Care ManagementUniversity of Pittsburgh Medical CenterPittsburghUSA
  5. 5.Department of Collaborative Care ManagementUniversity of Pittsburgh Medical CenterPittsburghUSA
  6. 6.Department of Surgery, Psychiatry and PsychologyUniversity of Pittsburgh School of MedicinePittsburghUSA

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