Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings

, Volume 19, Issue 4, pp 376–392

Managing Behavioral Health Needs of Veterans with Traumatic brain injury (TBI) in Primary Care

Article

Abstract

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a frequent occurrence in the United States, and has been given particular attention in the veteran population. Recent accounts have estimated TBI incidence rates as high as 20 % among US veterans who served in Afghanistan or Iraq, and many of these veterans experience a host of co-morbid concerns, including psychiatric complaints (such as depression and post-traumatic stress disorder), sleep disturbance, and substance abuse which may warrant referral to behavioral health specialists working in primary care settings. This paper reviews many common behavioral health concerns co-morbid with TBI, and suggests areas in which behavioral health specialists may assess, intervene, and help to facilitate holistic patient care beyond the acute phase of injury. The primary focus is on sequelae common to mild and moderate TBI which may more readily present in primary care clinics.

Keywords

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) Integrated primary care Veterans 

References

  1. Afari, N., Harder, L. H., Madra, N. J., Heppner, P. S., Moeller-Bertram, T., King, C., et al. (2009). PTSD, combat injury, and headache in veterans returning from Iraq/Afghanistan. Headache, 49, 1267–1276.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Alexander, M. P. (1995). Mild traumatic brain injury: Pathophysiology, natural history, and clinical management. Neurology, 45, 1253–1260.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Alla, S., Sullivan, S. J., Hale, L., & McCrory, P. (2009). Self-report scales/checklists for the measurement of concussion symptoms. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 43, i3–i12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Allen, R. (2011, September). Combining strategies to promote the generalization of self-management skills. Paper presented at the North American Brain Injury Society’s ninth annual conference on brain injury, New Orleans, LA.Google Scholar
  5. American Academy of Neurology, Quality Standards Subcommittee. (1997). Practice parameter: The management of concussion in sports (summary statement). Neurology, 48, 581–585.Google Scholar
  6. American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text revision; DSM-IV-TR). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  7. American Psychiatric Association. (2012). Neurocognitive disorder due to traumatic brain injury [DSM-5 proposed revisions website]. Retrieved 22 June 2012 from http://www.dsm5.org/ProposedRevision/Pages/proposedrevision.aspx?rid=497.
  8. Andelic, N., Jerstad, T., Sigurdattotir, S., Schanke, A. K., Sandvik, L., & Roe, C. (2010). Effects of acute substance use and pre-injury substance abuse on traumatic brain injury severity in adults admitted to a trauma centre. Journal of Trauma Management and Outcomes, 4, 1–12.Google Scholar
  9. Arciniegas, D. B., Frey, K. L., Newman, J., & Wortzel, H. S. (2010). Evaluation and management of posttraumatic cognitive impairments. Psychiatric Annals, 40, 540–552.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Ashman, T. A., Schwartz, M. E., Cantor, J. B., Hibbard, M. R., & Gordon, W. A. (2004). Screening for substance abuse in individuals with traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury, 18, 191–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Babor, T. F., Higgins-Biddle, J. C., Saunders, J. B., & Monteiro, M. G. (2001). The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test: Guidelines for use in primary care (2nd ed.). Geneva: World Health Organization, Department of Mental Health and Substance Dependence.Google Scholar
  12. Barton, B. (2011, September). Dimensions of support, hope, and resiliency in brain injury survivors and their families. Paper presented at the North American Brain Injury Society’s ninth annual conference on brain injury, New Orleans, LA.Google Scholar
  13. Bazarian, J. J., Wong, T., & Harris, M. (1999). Epidemiology and predictors of post-concussive syndrome after minor head injury in an emergency population. Brain Injury, 13, 173–189.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Beck, A. T., & Steer, R. A. (1993). Manual for the Beck Anxiety Inventory. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  15. Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., & Brown, G. K. (1996). Manual for the Beck Depression Inventory-II. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  16. Benge, J. F., Pastorek, N. J., & Thornton, G. M. (2009). Postconcussive symptoms in OEF-OIF veterans: Factor structure and impact of posttraumatic stress. Rehabilitation Psychology, 54, 270–278.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Binder, L. M. (1986). Persisting symptoms after mild head injury: A review of the post concussive syndrome. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 8, 323–346.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Bjork, J. M., & Grant, S. J. (2009). Does traumatic brain injury increase risk for substance abuse? Journal of Neurotrauma, 26, 1077–1082.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Bombardier, C. H., Fann, J. R., Temkin, N. R., Esselman, P. C., Barber, J., & Dikmen, S. S. (2010). Rates of major depressive disorder and clinical outcomes following traumatic brain injury. JAMA, 303, 1938–1945.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Branca, B., & Lake, A. E. (2004). Psychological and neuropsychological integration in multidisciplinary pain management after TBI. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 19, 40–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Bray, R. M., Pemberton, M. R., Hourani, L. L., Witt, M., Rae Olmstead, K. L., Brown, J. M., et al. (2009). 2008 Department of Defense survey of health related behaviors among active duty personnel. Research Triangle Park, NC: Research Triangle Institute International.Google Scholar
  22. Brenner, L. A., Betthauser, L. M., Homaifar, B. Y., Villareal, E., Harwood, J. E. F., Staves, P. J., et al. (2011a). Posttraumatic stress disorder, traumatic brain injury, and suicide attempt history among veterans receiving mental health services. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 41, 416–423.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Brenner, L. A., Carlson, N. E., Harrison-Felix, C., Ashman, T., Hammond, F. M., & Hirschberg, R. E. (2009a). Self-inflicted traumatic brain injury: Characteristics and outcomes. Brain Injury, 23, 991–998.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Brenner, L. A., Homaifar, B. Y., Adler, L. E., Wolfman, J. H., & Kemp, J. (2009b). Suicidality and veterans with a history of traumatic brain injury: Precipitating events, protective factors, and prevention strategies. Rehabilitation Psychology, 54, 390–397.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Brenner, L. A., Ignacio, R. V., & Blow, F. C. (2011b). Suicide and traumatic brain injury among individuals seeking Veterans Health Administration services. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 26, 257–264.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Brenner, L. A., Ivins, B. J., Schwab, K., Warden, D., Nelson, L. A., Jaffee, M., et al. (2010). Traumatic brain injury, posttraumatic stress disorder, and postconcussive symptom reporting among troops returning from Iraq. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 25, 307–312.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Brown, S., Hawker, G., Beaton, D., & Colantonio, A. (2011). Long-term musculoskeletal complaints after traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury, 25, 453–461.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Bryan, C. J., Corso, K. A., Neal-Warden, T., & Rudd, M. D. (2009). Managing suicide risk in primary care: Practice recommendations for behavioral health consultants. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 40, 148–155.Google Scholar
  29. Bryant, R. A. (2001). Posttraumatic stress disorder and mild brain injury: Controversies, causes, and consequences. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 23, 718–728.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Bryant, R. A., Marosszeky, J. E., Crooks, J., Baguley, I. J., & Gurka, J. A. (1999). Interaction of posttraumatic stress disorder and chronic pain following traumatic brain injury. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 14, 588–594.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Bryant, R. A., Moulds, M. L., Guthrie, R. M., & Nixon, R. D. V. (2003). Treating acute stress disorder following mild traumatic brain injury. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 585–587.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Bullinger, M., & The TBI Consensus Group. (2002). Quality of life in patients with traumatic brain injury—Basic issues, assessment and recommendations. Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience, 20, 111–124.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Cantor, J. B., Ashman, T., Gordon, W., Ginsberg, A., Engmann, C., Egan, M., et al. (2008). Fatigue after traumatic brain injury and its impact on participation and quality of life. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 23, 41–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Carlson, K. F., Kehle, S. M., Meis, L. A., Greer, N., MacDonald, R., Rutks, I., et al. (2011). Prevalence, assessment, and treatment of mild traumatic brain injury and posttraumatic stress disorder: A systematic review of the evidence. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 26, 103–115.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Carlson, K., Kehle, S., Meis, L., Greer, N., MacDonald, R., & Wilt, T. (2009). The assessment and treatment of individuals with history of traumatic brain injury and post-traumatic stress disorder: A systematic review of the evidence. Minneapolis, MN: Department of Veterans Affairs Health Services Research & Development Service.Google Scholar
  36. Carlson, K. F., Nelson, D., Orazem, R. J., Nugent, S., Cifu, D. X., & Sayer, N. (2010). Psychiatric diagnoses among Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans screened for deployment-related traumatic brain injury. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 23, 17–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Castriotta, R. J., & Murthy, J. N. (2011). Sleep disorders in patients with traumatic brain injury: A review. CNS Drugs, 25, 175–185.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2010). Heads up: Facts for physicians about mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control.Google Scholar
  39. Cicerone, K. D., & Azulay, J. (2006). Perceived self-efficacy and quality of life in traumatic brain injury. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 21, 408–436.Google Scholar
  40. Cicerone, K. D., & Kalmar, K. (1995). Persistent postconcussion syndrome: The structure of subjective complaints after mTBI. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 10, 1–17.Google Scholar
  41. Cifu, D., Bowles, A., Hurley, R., Cooper, D., Peterson, M., Drake, A., et al. (2009). Management of concussion/mild traumatic brain injury. US Department of Veterans Affairs and US Department of Defense. Washington, DC: The Management of Concussion/mTBI Working Group.Google Scholar
  42. Cigrang, J. A., Rauch, S. A. M., Avila, L. L., Bryan, C. J., Goodie, J. L., Hryshko-Mullen, A., et al. (2011). Treatment of active-duty military with PTSD in primary care: Early findings. Psychological Services, 8, 104–113.Google Scholar
  43. Clark, M. E., Bair, M. J., Buckenmaier, C. C., I. I. I., Gironda, R. J., & Walker, R. L. (2007). Pain and combat injuries in soldiers returning from Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom: Implications for research and practice. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, 44, 179–194.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Clark, M. E., Gironda, R. J., & Young, R. W. (2003). Development and validation of the Pain Outcomes Questionnaire-VA. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, 40, 381–396.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Cobb, S., & Battin, B. (2004). Second-impact syndrome. Journal of School Nursing, 20, 262–267.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Corrigan, J. D. (1995). Substance abuse as a mediating factor in outcome from traumatic brain injury. Archives of Physical Medicine Rehabilitation, 76, 302–309.Google Scholar
  47. Corrigan, J. D., & Deutschle, J. J., Jr. (2008). The presence and impact of traumatic brain injury among clients in treatment for co-occurring mental illness and substance abuse. Brain Injury, 22, 223–231.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Curtiss, G., Klemz, S., & Vanderploeg, R. D. (2000). Acute impact of severe traumatic brain injury on family structure and coping responses. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 15, 1113–1122.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Daggett, V., Bakas, T., & Habermann, B. (2009). A review of health-related quality of life in adult traumatic brain injury survivors in the context of combat veterans. Journal of Neuroscience Nursing, 41, 59–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Dausch, B. M., & Saliman, S. (2009). Use of family focused therapy in rehabilitation for veterans with traumatic brain injury. Rehabilitation Psychology, 54, 279–287.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Dean, P. J. A., O’Neill, D., & Sterr, A. (2012). Post-concussion syndrome: Prevalence after mild traumatic brain injury in comparison with a sample without head injury. Brain Injury, 26, 14–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. DeGuise, E., Leblanc, J., Dagher, J., Lamoureux, J., Al Jishi, A., Maleki, M., et al. (2009). Early outcome in patients with traumatic brain injury, pre-injury alcohol abuse and intoxication at time of injury. Brain Injury, 23, 853–865.Google Scholar
  53. DePalma, R. G., Burris, D. G., Champion, H. R., & Hodgson, M. J. (2005). Blast injuries. New England Journal of Medicine, 352, 1335–1342.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Department of Veterans Affairs. (2007). Screening and evaluation of possible traumatic brain injury in Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) veterans (VHA Directive 2007-013). Washington, DC: Department of Veterans Affairs, Veterans Health Administration.Google Scholar
  55. Department of Veterans Affairs. (2009). Pain management (VHA Directive 2009-053). Washington, DC: Veterans Health Administration, Department of Veterans Affairs.Google Scholar
  56. Diaz, F. G. (1995). Traumatic brain injury and criminal behavior. Medicine and Law, 14, 131–140.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Dobscha, S. K., Clark, M. E., Morasco, B. J., Freeman, M., Campbell, R., & Helfand, M. (2009). Systematic review of the literature on pain in patients with polytrauma including traumatic brain injury. Pain Medicine, 10, 1200–1217.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Donnelly, K. T., Donnelly, J. P., Dunnam, M., Warner, G. C., Kittleson, C. J., Constance, J. E., et al. (2011). Reliability, sensitivity, and specificity of the VA Traumatic Brain Injury Screening Tool. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 26, 439–453.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Drubach, D. A., Kelly, M. P., Winslow, M. M., & Flynn, J. P. (1993). Substance abuse as a factor in the causality, severity and recurrence rate of traumatic brain injury. Maryland Medical Journal, 42, 989–993.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Englander, J., Bushnik, T., Oggins, J., & Katznelson, L. (2010). Fatigue after traumatic brain injury: Association with neuroendocrine, sleep, depression, and other factors. Brain Injury, 24, 1379–1388.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Evans, R. W., Evans, R. I., & Sharp, M. J. (1994). The physician survey on the post-concussion and whiplash syndromes. Headache, 34, 268–274.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Ewing, J. A. (1984). Detecting alcoholism: The CAGE questionnaire. Journal of the American Medical Association, 252, 1905–1907.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Faul, M., Xu, L., Wald, M. M., & Coronado, V. G. (2010). Traumatic brain injury in the United States: Emergency department visits, hospitalizations and deaths 2002–2006. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control.Google Scholar
  64. Fergusson, S. D., & Coccaro, E. F. (2009). History of mild to moderate traumatic brain injury and aggression in physically healthy participants with and without personality disorder. Journal of Personality Disorders, 23, 230–239.Google Scholar
  65. Formisano, R., Bivona, U., Catani, S., D’Ippolito, M., & Buzzi, M. G. (2009). Post-traumatic headache: Facts and doubts. Journal of Headache and Pain, 10, 145–152.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. French, L. M. (2010). Military traumatic brain injury: An examination of important differences. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1208, 38–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. French, L., Lange, R. T., Iverson, G. L., Ivins, B., Marshall, K., & Schwab, K. (2012). Influence of bodily injuries on symptom reporting following uncomplicated mild traumatic brain injury in US military service members. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 27, 63–74.Google Scholar
  68. Fuller, M. G., Fishman, E., Taylor, C. A., & Wood, R. B. (1994). Screening patients with traumatic brain injuries for substance abuse. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 6, 143–146.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Gagnon, I., Swaine, B., Champagne, F., & Lefebvre, H. (2008). Perspectives of adolescents and their parents regarding service needs following a mild traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury, 22, 161–173.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Gironda, R. J., Clark, M. E., Ruff, R. L., Chait, S., Craine, M., Walker, R., et al. (2009). Traumatic brain injury, polytrauma, and pain: Challenges and treatment strategies for the polytrauma rehabilitation. Rehabilitation Psychology, 54, 247–258.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Gould, K. R., Ponsford, J. L., Johnston, L., & Schonberger, M. (2011). Relationship between psychiatric disorders and 1-year psychosocial outcome following traumatic brain injury. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 26, 79–89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Graham, D. P., & Cardon, A. L. (2008). An update on substance abuse and treatment following traumatic brain injury. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1141, 148–162.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Greve, K. W., Sherwin, E., Stanford, M. S., Mathias, C., Love, J., & Ramzinski, P. (2001). Personality and neurocognitive correlates of impulsive aggression in long-term survivors of severe traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury, 15, 255–262.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Griffin, J. M., Friedemann-Sanchez, G., Jensen, A. C., Taylor, B. C., Gravely, A., Clothier, B., et al. (2012). The invisible side of war: Families caring for US service members with traumatic brain injuries and polytrauma. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 27, 3–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Gutierrez, P. M., Brenner, L. A., & Huggins, J. A. (2008). A preliminary investigation of suicidality in psychiatrically hospitalized veterans with traumatic brain injury. Archives of Suicide Research, 12, 336–343.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Hampton, T. (2011). Traumatic brain injury a growing problem among troops serving in today’s wars. JAMA, 306, 477–479.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Hart, T., Vaccaro, M. J., Hays, C., & Maiuro, R. D. (2012). Anger management training for people with traumatic brain injury: A preliminary investigation. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 27, 113–122.Google Scholar
  78. Haskell, S. G., Heapy, A., Reid, M. C., Papas, R., & Kerns, R. D. (2006). The prevalence and age-related characteristics of pain in a sample of women veterans receiving primary care. Journal of Women’s Health, 15, 864–871.Google Scholar
  79. Heltemes, K. J., Dougherty, A. L., MacGregor, A. J., & Galarneau, M. R. (2011). Alcohol abuse disorders among U.S. service members with mild traumatic brain injury. Military Medicine, 176, 147–150.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Hoffman, S. W., & Harrison, C. (2009). The interaction between psychological health and traumatic brain injury: A neuroscience perspective. Clinical Neuropsychologist, 23, 1400–1415.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Hoge, C. W., McGurk, D., Thomas, J. L., Cox, A. L., Engel, C. C., & Castro, C. A. (2008). Mild traumatic brain injury in U.S. soldiers returning from Iraq. New England Journal of Medicine, 358, 453–463.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Howe, L. L. S. (2009). Giving context to post-deployment post-concussive-like symptoms: Blast-related potential mild traumatic brain injury and comorbidities. Clinical Neuropsychologist, 23, 1315–1337.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Hudak, A. M., Hynan, L. S., Harper, C. R., & Diaz-Arrastia, R. (2012). Association of depressive symptoms with functional outcome after traumatic brain injury. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 27, 87–98.Google Scholar
  84. Iverson, G. L. (2005). Outcome from mild traumatic brain injury. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 18, 301–317.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Iverson, G. L., & Lange, R. T. (2003). Examination of “postconcussion-like” symptoms in a healthy sample. Applied Neuropsychology, 10, 137–144.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Iverson, G. L., & McCracken, L. M. (1997). “Postconcussive” symptoms in persons with chronic pain. Brain Injury, 11, 783–790.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Jackson, D., Turner-Stokes, L., Murray, J., Leese, M., & McPherson, K. M. (2009). Acquired brain injury and dementia: A comparison of carer experiences. Brain Injury, 23, 433–444.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Jaffee, M. S., & Meyer, K. S. (2009). A brief overview of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) within the Department of Defense. Clinical Neuropsychologist, 23, 1291–1298.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Jorge, R., & Robinson, R. G. (2003). Mood disorders following traumatic brain injury. International Review of Psychiatry, 15, 317–327.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Kay, T., Harrington, D. E., Adams, R. E., Anderson, T. W., Berrol, S., Cicerone, K., et al. (1993). Definition of mild traumatic brain injury: Report from the Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Committee of the Head Injury Interdisciplinary Special Interest Group of the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 8, 86–87.Google Scholar
  91. Kelly, M. P., Johnson, C. T., Knoller, N., Drubach, D. A., & Winslow, M. M. (1997). Substance abuse, traumatic brain injury and neuropsychological outcome. Brain Injury, 11, 391–402.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Kerns, R. D., Otis, J. D., Rosenberg, R., & Reid, C. (2003). Veterans’ concerns about pain and their associations with ratings of health, health risk behaviors, affective distress, and use of the healthcare system. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, 40, 371–380.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Kerr, K., Oram, J., Tinson, H., & Shum, D. (2011). The correlates of aggression in people with acquired brain injury: A preliminary retrospective study. Brain Injury, 25, 729–741.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. King, P. R., Donnelly, K. T., Donnelly, J. P., Dunnam, M., Warner, G., Kittleson, C. J., et al. (2011, August). Cluster analysis of Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory items: Fifteen years later. Poster presented at 119th American Psychological Association Convention, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  95. King, P. R., Donnelly, K. T., Donnelly, J. P., Dunnam, M., Warner, G., Kittleson, C. J., et al. (2012). Psychometric study of the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory. Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development, 49, 879–888.Google Scholar
  96. Kivlahan, D., Liberto, J., & Haning, W. (co-chairs). (2009). VA/DoD clinical practice guideline for management of substance use disorders (SUD). Washington, DC: The Management of Substance Use Disorders Working Group, Department of Veterans Affairs and Department of Defense.Google Scholar
  97. Kolakowsky-Hayner, S. A., Gourley, E. V., I. I. I., Kreutzer, J. S., Marwitz, J. H., Meade, M. A., & Cifu, D. X. (2002). Post-injury substance abuse among persons with brain injury and persons with spinal cord injury. Brain Injury, 16, 583–592.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Kreutzer, J. S., Doherty, K. R., Harris, J. A., & Zasler, N. D. (1990). Alcohol use among persons with traumatic brain injury. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 5, 9–20.Google Scholar
  99. Kreutzer, J. S., Stejskal, T. M., Godwin, E. E., Powell, V. D., & Arango-Lasprilla, J. C. (2010). A mixed methods evaluation of the Brain Injury Family Intervention. NeuroRehabilitation, 27, 19–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Kroenke, K., Spitzer, R. L., & Williams, J. B. (2001). The PHQ-9: Validity of a brief depression severity measure. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 16, 606–613.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Leddy, J. J., Baker, J. G., Kozlowski, K., Bisson, L., & Willer, B. (2011). Reliability of a graded exercise test for assuring recovery from concussion. Clinical Journal of Sports Medicine, 21, 89–94.Google Scholar
  102. Levin, H. S., Brown, S. A., Song, J. X., McCauley, S. R., Boake, C., Contant, C. F., et al. (2001). Depression and posttraumatic stress disorder at three months after mild to moderate traumatic brain injury. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 23, 754–769.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Lew, H. L., Otis, J. D., Tun, C. T., Kerns, R. D., Clark, M. E., & Cifu, D. X. (2009). Prevalence of chronic pain, posttraumatic stress disorder, and persistent postconcussive symptoms in OIF/OEF veterans: Polytrauma clinical triad. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, 46, 697–702.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Lew, H. L., Vanderploeg, R. D., Moore, D. F., Schwab, K., Friedman, L., Yesavage, J., et al. (2008). Overlap of mild TBI and mental health conditions in returning OIF/OEF service members and veterans. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, 45, xi–xvi.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Lin, D. L., Kirk, K. L., Murphy, K. P., McHale, K. A., & Doukas, W. C. (2004). Evaluation of orthopaedic injuries in Operation Enduring Freedom. Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma, 18, S48–S53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Lippert-Gruner, M., Kuchta, J., Hellmich, M., & Klug, (2006). Neurobehavioral deficits after severe traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury, 20, 569–574.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Loeher Votruba, K., Rapport, L. J., Vangel, S. J., Hanks, R. A., Lequerica, A., Whitman, D., et al. (2008). Impulsivity and traumatic brain injury: The relations among behavioral observation, performance measures, and ratings scales. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 23, 65–73.Google Scholar
  108. Luis, C. A., Vanderploeg, R. D., & Curtiss, G. (2003). Predictors of postconcussion symptom complex in community dwelling male veterans. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 9, 1001–1015.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Mainio, A., Kyllonen, T., Viilo, K., Hakko, H., Sarkioja, T., & Rasanen, R. (2007). Traumatic brain injury, psychiatric disorders and suicide: A population-based study of suicide victims during the years 1988–2004 in northern Finland. Brain Injury, 21, 851–855.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Maiuro, R. D., Vitaliano, P. P., & Cahn, T. S. (1987). A brief measure for the assessment of anger and aggression. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 2, 166–178.Google Scholar
  111. Marsh, N. V., Kersel, D. A., Havill, J. H., & Sleigh, J. W. (1998). Caregiver burden at 1 year following severe traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury, 12, 1045–1059.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Marsh, N. V., Kersel, D. A., Havill, J. H., & Sleigh, J. W. (2002). Caregiver burden during the year following severe traumatic brain injury. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 24, 434–447.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. McCauley, S. R., Boake, C., Levin, H. S., Contant, C. F., & Song, J. X. (2001). Postconcussional disorder following mild to moderate traumatic brain injury: Anxiety, depression, and social support as risk factors and comorbidities. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 23, 792–808.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. McCrea, M., Iverson, G. L., McAllister, T. W., Hammeke, T. A., Powell, M. R., Barr, W. B., et al. (2009). An integrated review of recovery after mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI): Implications for clinical management. Clinical Neuropsychologist, 23, 1368–1390.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. McCrea, M., Pliskin, N., Barth, J., Cox, D., Fink, J., French, L., et al. (2008). Official position of the military TBI task force on the role of neuropsychology and rehabilitation psychology in the evaluation, management, and research of military veterans with traumatic brain injury. Clinical Neuropsychologist, 22, 10–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. McKinlay, W. W., Brooks, D. N., Bond, M. R., Martinage, D. P., & Marshall, M. M. (1981). The short-term outcome of severe blunt head injury as reported by relatives of the injured persons. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 44, 527–533.Google Scholar
  117. Meares, S., Shores, E. A., Taylor, A. J., Batchelor, J., Bryant, R. A., Bagueley, I. J., et al. (2011). The prospective course of postconcussion syndrome: The role of mild traumatic brain injury. Neuropsychology, 25, 454–465.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Meares, S., Shores, E. A., Taylor, A. J., Batchelor, J., Bryant, R. A., Baguley, I. J., et al. (2008). Mild traumatic brain injury does not predict acute postconcussion syndrome. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 79, 300–306.Google Scholar
  119. Mickeviciene, D., Schrader, H., Obelieniene, D., Surkiene, D., Kunickas, R., Stovner, L. J., et al. (2004). A controlled prospective inception cohort study on the post-concussion syndrome outside the medicolegal context. European Journal of Neurology, 11, 411–419.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Miller, L. J., & Mittenberg, W. (1998). Brief cognitive behavioral interventions in mild traumatic brain injury. Applied Neuropsychology, 5, 172–178.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Mittenberg, W., Canyock, E. M., Condit, D., & Patton, C. (2001). Treatment of post-concussion syndrome following mild head injury. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 23, 829–836.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Mittenberg, W., Tremont, G., Zielinski, R. E., Fichera, S., & Rayls, K. R. (1996). Cognitive-behavioral prevention of postconcussion syndrome. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 11, 139–145.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Mittenberg, W., Zielinski, R., & Fichera, S. (1993). Recovery from mild head injury: A treatment manual for patients. Psychotherapy in Private Practice, 12, 37–52.Google Scholar
  124. Moore, E. L., Terryberry-Spohr, L., & Hope, D. (2006). Mild traumatic brain injury and anxiety sequelae: A review of the literature. Brain Injury, 20, 117–132.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Morisette, S. B., Woodward, M., Kimbrel, N. A., Meyer, E. C., Kruse, M. I., Dolan, S., et al. (2011). Deployment-related TBI, persistent postconcussive symptoms, PTSD, and depression in OEF/OIF Veterans. Rehabilitation Psychology, 56, 340–350.Google Scholar
  126. Murrey, G. J., Dallas, R., & Maki, A. (2007). History of reported head trauma in a sample of women in substance abuse treatment. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 33, 327–332.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Nampiaparampil, D. E. (2008). Prevalence of chronic pain after traumatic brain injury: A systematic review. Journal of the American Medical Association, 300, 711–719.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. National Alliance for Caregiving. (2010). Report of study findings: Caregivers of veterans—Serving on the homefront. Bethesda, MD: National Alliance for Caregiving.Google Scholar
  129. Okie, S. (2005). Traumatic brain injury in the war zone. New England Journal of Medicine, 352, 2043–2047.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Olson-Madden, J. H., Brenner, L., Harwood, J. E. F., Emrick, C. D., Corrigan, J. D., & Thompson, C. (2010). Traumatic brain injury and psychiatric diagnoses in veterans seeking outpatient substance abuse treatment. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 6, 470–479.Google Scholar
  131. Ommaya, A. K., Salazar, A. M., Dannenberg, A. L., Ommaya, A. K., Chervinsky, A. B., & Schwab, K. (1996). Outcome after traumatic brain injury in the U.S. military medical system. Journal of Trauma, 41, 972–975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Opreanu, R. C., Kuhn, D., & Basson, M. D. (2010). Influence of alcohol on mortality in traumatic brain injury. Journal of the American College of Surgeons, 6, 997–1007.Google Scholar
  133. Otis, J. D., McGlinchey, R., Vasterling, J. J., & Kerns, R. D. (2011). Complicating factors associated with mild traumatic brain injury: Impact on pain and posttraumatic stress disorder treatment. Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings, 18, 145–154.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Owens, B. D., Kragh, J. F., Wenke, J. C., Macaitis, J., Wade, C. E., & Holcomb, J. B. (2008). Combat wounds in Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom. Journal of Trauma, 64, 295–299.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Parry-Jones, B. L., Vaughan, F. L., & Cox, W. M. (2006). Traumatic brain injury and substance misuse: A systematic review of prevalence and outcomes research (1994–2004). Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 16, 537–560.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Perlick, D. A., Straits-Troster, K., Dyck, D. G., Norell, D. M., Strauss, J. L., Henderson, C., et al. (2011). Multifamily group therapy for veterans with traumatic brain injury. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 42, 70–78.Google Scholar
  137. Pietrzak, R. H., Johnson, D. C., Goldstein, M. B., Malley, J. C., & Southwick, S. M. (2009). Posttraumatic stress disorder mediates the relationship between mild traumatic brain injury and health and psychosocial functioning in veterans of Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 197, 748–753.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Ponsford, J., Whelan, R., & Bahar-Fuchs, A. (2007). Alcohol and drug use following traumatic brain injury: A prospective study. Brain Injury, 21, 1385–1392.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Possemato, K. (2011). The current state of intervention research for posttraumatic stress disorder within the primary care setting. Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings, 18, 268–280.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Prins, A., Ouimette, P., Kimerling, R., Cameron, R. P., Hugelshofer, D. S., Shaw-Hegwer, J., et al. (2003). The primary care PTSD screen (PC-PTSD): Development and operating characteristics. Primary Care Psychiatry, 9, 9–14.Google Scholar
  141. Rao, V., Rosenberg, P., Bertrand, M., Salehinia, S., Spiro, J., Vaishnavi, S., et al. (2009). Aggression after traumatic brain injury: Prevalence and correlates. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 21, 420–429.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Rao, V., Spiro, J., Vaishnavi, S., Rastogi, P., Mielke, M., Noll, K., et al. (2008). Prevalence and types of sleep disturbances acutely after traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury, 22, 381–386.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Report of VA Consensus Conference. (2010). Practice recommendations for treatment of Veterans with comorbid TBI, pain, and PTSD. Department of Veterans Affairs, National Center for PTSD.Google Scholar
  144. Rochat, L., Beni, C., Billieux, J., Azouvi, P., Annoni, J. M., & Van der Linden, M. (2010). Assessment of impulsivity after moderate to severe traumatic brain injury. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 20, 778–797.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Rona, R. J., Jones, M., Fear, N. T., Hull, L., Murphy, D., Machell, L., et al. (2012). Mild traumatic brain injury in UK military personnel returning from Afghanistan and Iraq: Cohort and cross sectional analyses. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 27, 33–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Ruff, R. M., Iverson, G. L., Barth, J. T., Bush, S. S., Broshek, D. K., & The NAN Policy and Planning Committee. (2009). Recommendations for diagnosing a mild traumatic brain injury: A National Academy of Neuropsychology education paper. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 24, 3–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Ryan, L. M., & Warden, D. L. (2003). Post concussion syndrome. International Review of Psychiatry, 15, 310–316.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Schnurr, P. P., Friedman, M. J., Oxman, T. E., Dietrich, A. J., Smith, M. W., Shiner, B., et al. (2012). RESPECT-PTSD: Re-engineering systems for the primary care treatment of PTSD, a randomized controlled trial. Journal of General Internal Medicine. Advance online publication. doi:10.1007/s11606-012-2166-6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Schonberger, M., Ponsford, J., Olver, J., & Ponsford, M. (2010). A longitudinal study of family functioning after TBI and relatives’ emotional status. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 20, 813–829.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Schreiber, S., & Galai, G. T. (1993). Uncontrolled pain following physical injury as the core-trauma in the post-traumatic stress disorder. Pain, 54, 107–110.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Schutte, C., & Hanks, R. (2010). Impact of the presence of alcohol at the time of injury on acute and one-year cognitive and functional recovery after traumatic brain injury. International Journal of Neuroscience, 120, 551–556.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Seel, R. T., Macciocchi, S., & Kreutzer, J. S. (2010). Clinical considerations for the diagnosis of major depression after moderate to severe TBI. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 25, 99–112.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Shemesh, E., Annunziato, R. A., Weatherley, B. D., Cotter, G., Feaganes, J. R., Santra, M., et al. (2011). A randomized controlled trial of the safety and promise of cognitive-behavioral therapy using imaginal exposure in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder resulting from cardiovascular illness. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 72, 168–174.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Sherman, M. D. (2003). The S.A.F.E. Program: A family psychoeducational curriculum developed in a VA medical center. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 34, 42–48.Google Scholar
  155. Sherman, M. D. (2008). SAFE Program: Support and family education: Mental health facts for families (3rd ed.). Oklahoma City, OK: Oklahoma City VA Medical Center.Google Scholar
  156. Simpson, G., & Tate, R. (2007). Suicidality in people surviving a traumatic brain injury: Prevalence, risk factors and implications for clinical management. Brain Injury, 21, 1335–1351.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Smith, P. C., Schmidt, S. M., Allensworth-Davies, D., & Saitz, R. (2009). Primary care validation of a single-question alcohol screening test. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 24, 783–788.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Summerall, E. L., & McAllister, T. W. (2010). Comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder and traumatic brain injury in the military population. Psychiatric Annals, 40, 563–580.Google Scholar
  159. Tanielian, T., & Jaycox, L. H. (Eds.), RAND Corporation. (2008). Invisible wounds of war: Psychological and cognitive injuries, their consequences, and services to assist recovery. Santa Monica, CA: The RAND Corporation.Google Scholar
  160. Taylor, L. A., Kreutzer, J. S., Demm, S. R., & Meade, M. A. (2003). Traumatic brain injury and substance abuse: A review and analysis of the literature. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 13, 165–188.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Terrio, H. P., Nelson, L. A., Betthauser, L. M., Harwood, J. E., & Brenner, L. A. (2011). Postdeployment traumatic brain injury screening questions: Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values in returning soldiers. Rehabilitation Psychology, 56, 26–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Tsaousides, T., Cantor, J. B., & Gordon, W. A. (2011). Suicidal ideation following traumatic brain injury: Prevalence rates and correlates in adults living in the community. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 26, 265–275.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Turner, B., Fleming, J., Parry, J., Vromans, M., Cornwell, P., Gordon, C., et al. (2010). Caregivers of adults with traumatic brain injury: The emotional impact of transition from home to hospital. Brain Impairment, 11, 281–292.Google Scholar
  164. Uomoto, J., & Esselman, P. (1993). Traumatic brain injury and chronic pain: Differential types and rates by head injury severity. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 74, 61–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Walker, R. L., Clark, M. E., Nampiaparampil, D. E., McIlvried, L., Gold, M. S., Okonkwo, R., et al. (2010a). The hazards of war: Blast injury headache. Journal of Pain, 11, 297–302.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Walker, R. L., Clark, M. E., & Sanders, S. H. (2010b). The “postdeployment multi-symptom disorder”: An emerging syndrome in need of a new treatment paradigm. Psychological Services, 7, 136–147.Google Scholar
  167. Warden, D. (2006). Military TBI during the Iraq and Afghanistan wars. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 21, 398–402.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Ware, J. E., Snow, K. K., Kosinski, M., & Gandek, B. (1993). SF-36 ® Health Survey manual and interpretation guide. Boston: New England Medical Center, The Health Institute.Google Scholar
  169. Wasserman, L., Shaw, T., Vu, M., Ko, C., Bollegala, D., & Bhalerao, S. (2008). An overview of traumatic brain injury and suicide. Brain Injury, 22, 811–819.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Weathers, F., Litz, B., Herman, D., Huska, J., & Keane, T. (1993). The PTSD Checklist (PCL): Reliability, validity, and diagnostic utility. Paper presented at the annual convention of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies, San Antonio, TX.Google Scholar
  171. Wehman, P., Targett, P., Yasuda, S., & Brown, T. (2000). Return to work for individuals with TBI and a history of substance abuse. NeuroRehabilitation, 15, 71–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Whelan-Goodinson, R., Ponsford, J., Johnston, L., & Grant, F. (2009). Psychiatric disorders following traumatic brain injury: Their nature and frequency. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 24, 324–332.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Willer, B., & Leddy, J. J. (2006). Management of concussion and post-concussion syndrome. Current Treatment Options in Neurology, 8, 415–426.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Winqvist, S., Luukinen, H., Jokelainen, J., Lehtilahti, M., Nayha, S., & Hillbom, M. (2008). Recurrent traumatic brain injury is predicted by the index injury occurring under the influence of alcohol. Brain Injury, 22, 780–785.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Wolf, G. K., Strom, T. Q., Kehle, S. M., & Eftekhari, A. (2012). A preliminary examination of prolonged exposure therapy with Iraq and Afghanistan veterans with a diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder and mild to moderate traumatic brain injury. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 27, 26–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. World Health Organization. (1992). International statistical classification of diseases and related health problems (10th ed.). Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  177. Zarit, S. H., Reever, K. E., & Bach-Peterson, J. (1980). Relatives of the impaired elderly: Correlates of feelings of burden. Gerontologist, 20, 649–655.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Zumstein, M. A., Moser, M., Mottini, M., Ott, S. R., Sadowski-Cron, C., Radanov, B. P., et al. (2011). Long-term outcome in patients with mild traumatic brain injury: A prospective observational study. Journal of Trauma, 71, 120–127.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York (outside the USA) 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Integrated Healthcare (116N)VA Western New York Healthcare SystemBuffaloUSA
  2. 2.Division of Geriatrics/Gerontology, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine and Biomedical SciencesState University of New York/University at BuffaloBuffaloUSA

Personalised recommendations