Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings

, Volume 12, Issue 3, pp 271–280

Women Psychologists within Academic Health Systems: Mentorship and Career Advancement

  • Cheryl A. King
  • Barbara Cubic
Article

Abstract

Women are underrepresented on the faculties and within the senior leadership ranks of academic health systems. Nevertheless, despite the continuing existence of career development challenges related to gender, it is possible for women to thrive professionally in these settings. Mentorship is extremely important, and it is argued that effective mentorship is facilitated by an understanding of both gender differences in social behaviors and the culture of academic health systems. Furthermore, a systems’ level emphasis on faculty diversity and the career development of women faculty is recommended.

Key words

mentorship under-representation of women gender differences academic health centers 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adel-Wahab, N. (2004). Women and leadership in healthcare [Review of the book Women and Leadership in Healthcare]. Journal of the American Medical Women’s Association, 59, 77.Google Scholar
  2. American Psychological Association. (2004a). Committee on Accreditation: 2003 Annual report. Washington, DC: Author. (Available from APA Office of Program Consultation and Accreditation, 750 First Street, NE, Washington, DC 20002).Google Scholar
  3. American Psychological Association (2004b). 2003 Medical school/Academic medical center psychologists’ employment survey. Washington, DC: Author. (Available from APA Office of Research, 750 First Street, NE, Washington, DC 20002).Google Scholar
  4. American Psychological Association Committee on Women in Psychology. (2004c). 52 resolutions & motions regarding the status of women in psychology: Chronicling 30 years of passion and progress. Washington, DC: Author. (Available from APA Women’s Programs Office, 750 First Street, NE, Washington, DC 20002).Google Scholar
  5. Anderson, L. R., & Blanchard, P. N. (1982). Sex differences in task and social-emotional behavior. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 3, 109–139.Google Scholar
  6. Association of American Medical Colleges. (2003). Women in U.S. academic medicine statistics, 2002-2003. Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  7. Association of Medical School Psychologists. (2005). AMSP Consultation Program. Retrieved March 3, 2005, from http://www.apa.org/divisions/div12/sections/section8/index.htm..
  8. Bickel, J. (2004). Women in academic psychiatry. Academic Psychiatry, 28, 285–291.Google Scholar
  9. Bickel, J., Wara, D., Atkinson, B. F., Cohen, L. W., Dunn, M., Hostler, S. et al. (2002). Increasing women’s leadership in academic medicine: Report of the AAMC project implementation committee. Washington, DC, AAMC.Google Scholar
  10. Bondurant, S. (1995). Health care reform continues: Themes for academic medicine. Academic Medicine, 70, 93–97.Google Scholar
  11. Borus, J. E. (2004). Women and academic psychiatry (a commentary). Academic Psychiatry, 28, 278–281.Google Scholar
  12. Cooper, H. (1979). Statistically combining independent studies: A meta-analysis of sex differences in conformity research. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 131–146.Google Scholar
  13. Eagly, A. H. (1997). Comparing Women and Men: Methods, Findings, and Politics. In Walsh, M. R. (Eds.). Women, Men, & Gender Ongoing Debates (pp. 24–31). New Haven, London: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Eagley, A. H., & Crowley, M. (1986). Gender and helping behavior: A meta-analytic review of the social psychological literature. Psychological Bulletin, 100, 283–308.Google Scholar
  15. Eagly, A. H., & Johnson, B. T. (1990). Gender and Leadership Style: A Meta-Analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 108, 233–256.Google Scholar
  16. Eagly, A. H., & Karau, S. J. (1991). Gender and the emergence of leaders: A Metal-Analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 685–710.Google Scholar
  17. Eagly, A. H., & Steffen, V. J. (1986). Gender and aggressive behavior: A meta-analytic review of the social psychological literature. Psychological Bulletin, 100, 309–330.Google Scholar
  18. Eagly, A. H., & Wood, W. (1991). Explaining Sex Difference in Social Behavior: A Metal-Analytic Perspective. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 17, 306–315.Google Scholar
  19. Eagly, A. H. (1995). The Science and Politics of Comparing Women and Men. American Psychologist, 50(3), 145–158.Google Scholar
  20. Eakins, B. W., & Eakins, A. G. (1978). Sex Differences in Communication. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  21. Gilligan, C. (1982). In a Different Voice: Psychological theory and women’s development. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Hall, J. A. (1978). Gender effects in decoding nonverbal cues. Psychological Bulletin, 85, 845–857.Google Scholar
  23. Hall, J. A. (1984). Nonverbal sex differences: Communication accuracy and expressive style. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Hampton, C. L., Sanders, K. M., & Klein, W. S. (2004). Pathways to leadership conference: A professional development resource for women in medicine. Journal of the American Medical Women’s Association, 59, 82–83.Google Scholar
  25. Heim, P., & Golant, S. K. (1992). Hardball for women: Winning at the game of business. New York: Plume.Google Scholar
  26. Heyl, A. (2000, October). Facilitated mentoring: Means for promoting lifetime learning. Presented at the 111th AAMC Annual Meeting, Chicago, IL.Google Scholar
  27. Hirshbein, L. D., Fitzgerald, K., & Riba, M. (2004). Women and teaching in academic psychiatry. Academic Psychiatry, 28, 292–298.Google Scholar
  28. Horney, K. (1926). The flight from womanhood. In Kelman, H. (Ed.), Feminine psychology (pp. 54–70). New York: Norton, 1967.Google Scholar
  29. Lakoff, R. (1975). Language and Women’s Place. New York: Harper Colophon Books.Google Scholar
  30. Lott, B. (1997). Cataloging Gender Differences: Science or Politics? In Walsh, M. R. (Eds.), Women, men, & gender ongoing debates (pp. 19–23). New Haven, London: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  31. Maccoby, E. E., & Jacklin, C. N. (1974). The Psychology of Sex Differences. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  32. Mason, M. A., & Goulden, M. (2004). Do babies matter (Part II): Closing the baby gap. Academe, 90, 11–17.Google Scholar
  33. McElvaine, R. S. (2001). Eve’s seed: Biology, the sexes and the course of history. New York: NY: McGraw Hill.Google Scholar
  34. National Health Lawyers Association and the Academy of Health Care Attorneys. (1997). Patient care and professional responsibility. Impact of the corporate practice of medicine doctrine and related laws and regulations. Washington, DC.: Author.Google Scholar
  35. Nonnemaker, L. (2000). Women physicians in academic medicine: new insights from cohort studies. New England Journal of Medicine, 342, 399–405.Google Scholar
  36. Richman, R. C. (2004). Networking lessons for women professionals—Connecting the dots, building matrices. Journal of the American Medical Women’s Association, 59, 7–9.Google Scholar
  37. Robinson-Walker, C. (1999). Women and Leadership in Healthcare. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  38. Rothstein, W. G. (1987). American Medical Schools and the Practice of Medicine. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  39. Souba, W. W. (2002). Academic medicine and the search for meaning and purpose. Academic Medicine, 77, 139–144.Google Scholar
  40. Stier, D. S., & Hall, J. A. (1984). Gender differences in touch: An empirical and theoretical review. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 47, 440–459.Google Scholar
  41. Swacker, M. (1976). Women’s verbal behavior at learned and professional conferences. In Dubois, B. L., & Crouch, I. (Eds.), The sociology of the languages of American women (pp. 155–160). San Antonio: Trinity University.Google Scholar
  42. Tannen, D. (1997). Women and Men Talking: An International Sociolinguistic Approach. In Walsh, M. R. (Eds.), Women, men, & gender ongoing debates (pp. 82–90). New Haven, London: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Tannen, D. (1990). You Just Don’t Understand: Women and Men in Conversation. New York: William Morrow and Company, Inc.Google Scholar
  44. Tannen, D. (1994). Talking from 9 to 5: How Women’s and Men’s Conversation Style Affect Who Gets Heard, Who Gets Credit, and What Gets Done at Work. New York: William Morrow and Company, Inc.Google Scholar
  45. University of Michigan. University of Michigan Hospitals and Health Centers Mission, Vision and Values. Retrieved November 30, 2004, from http://www.med.umich.edu/exec/mission.htm..
  46. Vanderbilt Law Review. (1987, March). The corporate practice of medicine doctrine: An anachronism in the modern health care industry (40, No. 2). Author.Google Scholar
  47. Yedidia, M. J., & Bickel, J. (2001). Why aren’t there more women leaders in academic medicine? The views of clinical department chairs. Academic Medicine, 76, 453–465.Google Scholar
  48. Walsh, M. R. (Ed.). (1997). Women, Men, & Gender Ongoing Debates. New Haven, London: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  49. Williams, P. (2000, Winter). Men receive larger NIH research grants—Why? Women in Medicine Network, Eastern Virginia Medical School, 2, 4.Google Scholar
  50. Wooley, H. T. (1910). Psychological literature: A review of the recent literature on the psychology of sex. Psychological Bulletin, 7, 335–342.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cheryl A. King
    • 1
    • 3
  • Barbara Cubic
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of Michigan Medical SchoolAnn Arbor
  2. 2.Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral SciencesEastern Virginia Medical SchoolNorfolk
  3. 3.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of Michigan Medical SchoolAnn Arbor

Personalised recommendations