Journal of Combinatorial Optimization

, Volume 32, Issue 4, pp 1089–1106 | Cite as

Directed Steiner trees with diffusion costs

  • Dimitri Watel
  • Marc-Antoine Weisser
  • Cédric Bentz
  • Dominique Barth


Given a directed arc-weighted graph G with n nodes, a root r and k terminals, the directed steiner tree problem (DST) consists in finding a minimum-weight tree rooted at r and spanning all the terminals. If this problem has several applications in multicast routing in packet switching networks, the modeling is not adapted anymore in networks based upon the circuit switching principle in which some nodes, called non diffusing nodes, are unable to duplicate packets. We define a more general problem, namely the directed steiner tree with a limited number of diffusing nodes (DSTLD), that enables us to model multicast in a network containing at most d diffusing nodes. We show that DSTLD is XP with respect to d, and use this result to build a \(\left\lceil \frac{k-1}{d} \right\rceil \)-approximation algorithm for DST that is XP in d. We deduce from that result a strong inapproximability property. In particular, we prove that, under the assumption that NP \(\not \subseteq \) ZTIME \([n^{\log ^{O(1)}n}]\), there is no polynomial-time approximation algorithm for DSTLD with ratio \(\varOmega \left( \frac{k}{d}\right) \). We finally give an evaluation of performances of an exact algorithm dedicated to the case \(d \le 3\).


Approximation Parameterized complexity Directed steiner tree Diffusing node 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dimitri Watel
    • 1
    • 3
  • Marc-Antoine Weisser
    • 1
  • Cédric Bentz
    • 2
  • Dominique Barth
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Computer Science SUPELEC System SciencesGif Sur YvetteFrance
  2. 2.CEDRIC-CNAMParis Cedex 03France
  3. 3.University of VersaillesVersaillesFrance

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