Journal of Combinatorial Optimization

, Volume 26, Issue 1, pp 161–177 | Cite as

Practical unicast and convergecast scheduling schemes for cognitive radio networks

  • Shouling Ji
  • Arif Selcuk Uluagac
  • Raheem Beyah
  • Zhipeng Cai


Cognitive Radio Networks (CRNs) have paved a road for Secondary Users (SUs) to opportunistically exploit unused spectrum without harming the communications among Primary Users (PUs). In this paper, practical unicast and convergecast schemes, which are overlooked by most of the existing works for CRNs, are proposed. We first construct a cell-based virtual backbone for CRNs. Then prove that SUs have positive probabilities to access the spectrum and the expected one hop delay is bounded by a constant, if the density of PUs is finite. According to this fact, we proposed a three-step unicast scheme and a two-phase convergecast scheme. We demonstrate that the induced delay from our proposed Unicast Scheduling (US) algorithm scales linearly with the transmission distance between the source and the destination. Furthermore, the expected delay of the proposed Convergecast Scheduling (CS) algorithm is proven to be upper bounded by \(O(\log n + \sqrt{n/\log n})\). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of convergecast in CRNs. Finally, the performance of the proposed algorithms is validated through simulations.


Cognitive radio networks Unicast Convergecast 


  1. Akyildiz IF, Lee WY, Vuran MC, Mohanty S (2006) NeXt generation/dynamic spectrum access/cognitive radio wireless networks: a survey. Comput Netw 50:2127–2159 zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Dousse O, Baccelli F, Thiran P (2003) Impact of interferences on connectivity in ad hoc networks. In: INFOCOM 2003, pp 1724–1733 Google Scholar
  3. Han C, Yang Y (2011) Information propagation speed study in multihop cognitive radio networks. In: INFOCOM 2011, pp 226–230 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. He J, Cai Z, Ji S, Beyah R, Pan Y (2011) A genetic algorithm for constructing a reliable MCDS in probabilistic wireless networks. In: WASA 2011, pp 96–107 Google Scholar
  5. Hu D, Mao S, Reed JH (2009) On video multicast in cognitive radio networks. In: INFOCOM 2009, pp 2222–2230 Google Scholar
  6. Huang W, Wang X (2011) Throughput and delay scaling of general cognitive networks. In: INFOCOM 2011, pp 2210–2218 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Huang S, Liu X, Ding Z (2009) Optimal transmission strategies for dynamic spectrum access in cognitive radio networks. IEEE Trans Mob Comput 8(12):1636–1648 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Huang X, Lu D, Li P, Fang Y (2011) Coolest path: spectrum mobility aware routing metrics in cognitive ad hoc networks. In: ICDCS 2011, pp 182–191 Google Scholar
  9. Jeon SW, Devroye N, Vu M, Chung SY, Tarokh V (2008) Cognitive networks achieve throughput scaling of a homogeneous network. IEEE Trans Inf Theory 57(8):5103–5115 MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Jin J, Xu H, Li B (2010) Multicast scheduling with cooperation and network coding in cognitive radio networks. In: INFOCOM 2010, pp 1–9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kasbekar GS, Sarkar S (2010) Spectrum pricing games with bandwidth uncertainty and spatial reuse in cognitive radio networks. In: MobiHoc 2010, pp 251–260 Google Scholar
  12. Kim H, Shin KG (2008) In-band spectrum sensing in cognitive radio networks: energy detection or feature detection. In: MobiCom 2008, pp 14–25 Google Scholar
  13. Kompella S, Nguyen GD, Wieselthier JE, Ephremides A (2011) Stable throughput tradeoffs in cognitive shared channels with cooperative relaying. In: INFOCOM 2011, pp 1961–1969 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Li C, Dai H (2011a) On the throughput scaling of cognitive radio ad hoc networks. In: INFOCOM 2011, pp 241–245 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Li C, Dai H (2011b) Transport throughput of secondary networks in spectrum sharing systems. In: INFOCOM 2011, pp 2732–2740 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Li Y, Thai MT, Wang F, Du DZ (2006) On the construction of a strongly connected broadcast arborescence with bounded transmission delay. IEEE Trans Mob Comput 5(10):1460–1470 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Pan M, Zhang C, Li P, Fang Y (2011) Joint routing and link scheduling for cognitive radio networks under uncertain spectrum supply. In: INFOCOM 2011, pp 2237–2245 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ren W, Zhao Q, Swami A (2010) On the connectivity and multihop delay of ad hoc cognitive radio networks. In: ICC 2010, pp 1–6 Google Scholar
  19. Ross SM (2007) Introduction to probability models, 9th edn. Elsevier, New York Google Scholar
  20. Shi Y, Hou YT (2008) A distributed optimization algorithm for multi-hop cognitive radio networks. In: INFOCOM 2008, pp 1292–1300 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Shu T, Krunz M (2009) Coordinated channel access in cognitive radio networks: a multi-level spectrum opportunity perspective. In: INFOCOM 2009, pp 2976–2980 Google Scholar
  22. Shu T, Krunz M (2010) Truthful least-priced-path routing in opportunistic spectrum access networks. In: INFOCOM 2010, pp 1–9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Sun L, Wang W (2011) On distribution and limits of information dissemination latency and speed in mobile cognitive radio networks. In: INFOCOM 2011, pp 246–250 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Wang F, Krunz M, Cui S (2008) Spectrum sharing in cognitive radio networks. In: INFOCOM 2008, pp 1885–1893 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Wang C, Li XY, Tang S, Jiang C (2010) Multicast capacity scaling for cognitive networks: general extended primary network. In: MASS 2010, pp 262–271 Google Scholar
  26. Wang P, Akyildiz IF, Al-Dhelaan AM (2011) Percolation theory based connectivity and latency analysis of cognitive radio ad hoc networks. Wirel Netw 17:659–669 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Yin C, Gao L, Cui S (2010) Scaling laws for overlaid wireless networks: a cognitive radio network versus a primary network. IEEE/ACM Trans Netw 18(4):1317–1329 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Zhang T, Tsang DHK (2011) Optimal cooperative sensing scheduling for energy-efficient cognitive radio networks. In: INFOCOM 2011, pp 2723–2731 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shouling Ji
    • 1
  • Arif Selcuk Uluagac
    • 2
  • Raheem Beyah
    • 2
  • Zhipeng Cai
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Computer ScienceGeorgia State UniversityAtlantaUSA
  2. 2.School of Electrical and Computer EngineeringGeorgia Institute of TechnologyAtlantaUSA

Personalised recommendations