Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing

, Volume 27, Issue 1, pp 81–91 | Cite as

Cardiac parameters in children recovered from acute illness as measured by electrical cardiometry and comparisons to the literature

  • Jackson Wong
  • Michael S. D. Agus
  • Garry M. Steil
Original Research


Electrical cardiometry (EC) is a non-invasive cardiac output method that can assess cardiac index (CI) and stroke index (SI) but there are no reference values for children per se. The primary aim of this study was to develop reference values for clinical application. The secondary aim was to compare the EC measurements to published values. We performed a prospective observational study in patients (<21 years of age) without structural heart disease who had recovered from an acute illness. EC recordings in children that had normal heart rate and mean arterial blood pressure at discharge were eligible for analysis. The relationship of CI or SI and age in children was performed by regression analysis. Similar analysis was performed comparing measurements by EC to cardiac parameters values compiled from reference sources to assess bias in EC. Eighty-three children (2 weeks–21 years of age) were studied. There was a significant curvilinear relationship between CI or SI and age by EC (F-test, p < 0.05). Regression curves of cardiac parameters reported in the literature using 6 Fick’s method, thermodilution, echocardiography and cardiac MRI were the same or higher than (0–19.6 %) values obtained with EC, with higher values being statistically significant (p < 0.05 all). There is a curvilinear relationship of CI or SI and age by EC in normal children. Cardiac parameters reported in the literature using alternative methods are different from those obtained with EC but are within acceptable ranges, with EC biased to underestimate CI. Adjustment of target value is required for EC goal-directed therapies.


Non-invasive Monitoring Cardiac output Stroke index Electrical cardiometry Children 



Cardiac output


Cardiac index


Stroke volume


Stroke index


Systemic vascular resistance index


Heart rate


Mean arterial pressure


Electrical cardiometry



The authors would like to express their gratitude to Melissa Whalen BS for her editorial and administrative assistance, Julie Caplow MS and Mary K Stone MS MPH for conduction of study and data compilation and David Wypij PhD and Lisa A Scoppettuolo MS for guidance in data analysis.

Conflict of interest

Jackson Wong has a Clinical Trial Agreement with Cardiotronic Inc, La Jolla, CA. Cardiotronic Inc provided funding for this investigator initiative study. The research proposal, design, conduct of the study, data analysis and manuscript were performed solely by the investigators at Boston Children’s Hospital and the co-authors do not report a conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jackson Wong
    • 1
    • 2
  • Michael S. D. Agus
    • 1
    • 2
  • Garry M. Steil
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Medicine Critical Care Program, Department of MedicineBoston Children’s HospitalBostonUSA
  2. 2.Harvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA

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