Functionalization of Ag Nanoparticles by Glutamic Acid and Conjugation of Ag@Glu by Thiosemicarbazide Enhances the Apoptosis of Human Breast Cancer MCF-7 Cells
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In this study, we developed a novel thiosemicarbazide (TSC) conjugated with Ag nanoparticles functionalized by glutamic acid (Ag@Glu) for anticancer activities against human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. The Ag@Glu/TSC nanoparticles were characterized by UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, SEM, TEM, and XRD analyses. FTIR spectrum showed that the TSC was anchored on the Ag@Glu nanoparticles. The TEM and SEM images of the sample revealed that the Ag@Glu/TSC varied in morphology with a mean size of ~ 50 nm. In vitro cytotoxicity effect of Ag@Glu/TSC was performed using MTT assay toward human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Moreover, Ag@Glu/TSC induced-apoptosis was evaluated using Hoechst 33258 staining, Caspase-3 activation assay, and annexin V/PI staining with flow cytometry analysis. The MTT assay result of Ag@Glu/TSC showed that the cell viability was in a dose-dependent manner (IC50 = 299.17 μg/mL). We found that Ag@Glu/TSC induce the apoptosis of MCF-7 cell through an increase in Caspase-3 and nuclear fragmentation. Furthermore, the percentage of early and late apoptotic cancer cells was increased as compared to untreated cells using annexin V/PI staining. Finally, we found that the novel Ag@Glu/TSC nanoparticles could inhibit the proliferation of MCF-7 cells by triggering apoptosis pathway, suggesting a new approach to treat breast cancer.
KeywordsCaspase-3 Cytotoxicity Flow cytometry Nanoparticle
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Conflict of interest
All of the authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
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