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Low Rates of Poliovirus Antibodies in Primary Immunodeficiency Patients on Regular Intravenous Immunoglobulin Treatment

  • Beatriz T. Costa-Carvalho
  • Kathleen E. Sullivan
  • Patrícia M. Fontes
  • Fernanda Aimé-Nobre
  • Isabela G. S. Gonzales
  • Elaine S. Lima
  • Celso Granato
  • Maria Isabel de Moraes-Pinto
Original Article

Abstract

Purpose

Poliovirus has been nearly eliminated as part of a world-wide effort to immunize and contain circulating wild-type polio. Nevertheless, poliovirus has been detected in water supplies and represents a threat to patients with humoral immunodeficiencies where infection can be fatal. To define the risk, we analyzed antibodies to poliovirus 1, 2, and 3 in serum samples collected over a year from patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID) on regular intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) replacement.

Methods

Twenty-one patients on regular IVIG replacement therapy were evaluated: Twelve patients with common variable immune deficiency (CVID), six with X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA), and three with hyper IgM syndrome (HIGM). Over 1 year, four blood samples were collected from each of these patients immediately before immunoglobulin infusion. One sample of IVIG administered to each patient in the month before blood collection was also evaluated. Poliovirus antibodies were quantified by seroneutralization assay.

Results

All IVIG samples had detectable antibodies to the three poliovirus serotypes. Despite that, only 52.4, 61.9, and 19.0% of patients showed protective antibody titers for poliovirus 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Only two patients (9.5%) had protective antibodies for the three poliovirus serotypes on all samples. Most patients were therefore susceptible to all three poliovirus serotypes.

Conclusions

This study demonstrates the need for ongoing vigilance regarding exposure of patients with PID to poliovirus in the community.

Keywords

Primary immunodeficiency diseases poliovirus antibodies intravenous immunoglobulin Global Polio Eradication Initiative antibody deficiency common variable immunodeficiency X-linked agammaglobulinemia Hyper IgM syndrome 

Notes

Financial Support

This study was funded by the FAPESP (2011/06136-6), a Brazilian Funding Agency.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Beatriz T. Costa-Carvalho
    • 1
  • Kathleen E. Sullivan
    • 2
  • Patrícia M. Fontes
    • 1
    • 3
  • Fernanda Aimé-Nobre
    • 1
  • Isabela G. S. Gonzales
    • 1
  • Elaine S. Lima
    • 4
  • Celso Granato
    • 4
  • Maria Isabel de Moraes-Pinto
    • 3
    • 5
  1. 1.Division of Allergy Clinical Immunology and Rheumatology, Department of PediatricsUniversidade Federal de São PauloSão PauloBrazil
  2. 2.Division of Allergy Immunology, The Children’s Hospital of PhiladelphiaUniversity of Pennsylvania Perelman School of MedicinePhiladelphiaUSA
  3. 3.Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of PediatricsUniversidade Federal de São PauloSão PauloBrazil
  4. 4.Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of MedicineUniversidade Federal de São PauloSão PauloBrazil
  5. 5.Research Laboratory, Division of Pediatric Infectious DiseasesFederal University of Sao PauloSão PauloBrazil

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