High Level Antibody Avidity is Achieved in HIV-Seropositive Recipients of an Inactivated Split Adjuvanted (AS03A) Influenza Vaccine
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More severe influenza disease and poor vaccine immunogenicity is reported in HIV-infected patients. We measured antibody avidity after influenza vaccination in HIV patients to assess vaccine efficacy.
Two dosing strategies (Group1: single dose, n = 28. Group2: single dose plus booster, n = 36) with an AS03A-adjuvanted H1N12009 pandemic influenza vaccine (Arepanrix, GSK) were assessed in HIV patients. Serum hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) titers and antibody avidity reported as an avidity index (AI) were measured at days 21 and 42 and at 6 months.
Baseline HIV parameters were similar among all participants. Eighteen participants had measurable baseline HAI titers. In these subjects, AI was at ~9 at baseline and was not significantly increased by one or two vaccine doses. In those without detectable baseline antibodies, immunization induced modest antibody titers [Group1 HAI, 61 (26–144); Group2 HAI, 46 (28–76)] with high AI after one dose at day 21 [Group1 AI, 8.8 (7.3–10.7); Group2 AI, 8.9 (7.8–10.1)]. A second dose of vaccine generated significantly higher HAI titers at day 42 [Group1 HAI, 41 (18–90); Group2 HAI, 92 (64–132)] and persisted to 6 months [Group1 HAI, 9 (6–13); Group2 HAI, 19 (13–30)]. All subjects who produced detectable HAI titers after vaccination generated high antibody avidity (AI, 9–10), which persisted up to 6 months.
In participants initially seronegative, two doses of vaccine enabled a greater percentage of subjects to respond to the vaccine and elicited higher HAI titers. All subjects who produced detectable HAI titers also rapidly generated high AI in the short and long term. We demonstrate that high avidity antibodies can be achieved after vaccination and support a two-dose immunization strategy for HIV-positive subjects.