Three Different Classifications, B Lymphocyte Subpopulations, TNFRSF13B (TACI), TNFRSF13C (BAFF-R), TNFSF13 (APRIL) Gene Mutations, CTLA-4 and ICOS Gene Polymorphisms in Turkish Patients with Common Variable Immunodeficiency
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B lymphocyte subpopulations, previously defined classification schemes (Freiburg, Paris, EuroClass), TNFRSF13B (TACI), TNFRSF13C (BAFF-R), TNFSF13 (APRIL) gene mutations, CTLA-4 and ICOS gene polymorphisms were analyzed in 25 common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) patients and 25 healthy controls. Patients were also divided into two subgroups due to some disease severity criteria. SG (severe disease group) (n:11) included patients who have splenomegaly and/or granulomatous diseases and/or bronchiectasis and/or lower baseline IgG values (<270 mg/dl). MG (moderate disease group) (n:14) patients diagnosed as having ESID/PAGID criteria but does not fulfill SG inclusion criteria. The onset of infectious symptoms and age at diagnosis were 50.0 ± 45.7 and 78.5 ± 54.5 months, respectively. Parental consanguinity rate was 54.5% in SG and 7.1% in MG. Switched-memory B cells (CD19 + 27 + IgD-IgM-) showed significant decrease in CVID patients and these cells were also significantly lower in SG compared to MG. CVID patients had significantly higher percentages of CD19 + κ + B cells and CD19 + λ + B cells than healthy controls. Freiburg classification: 87,5% of patients (n:21) were in group I and 12.5% were in Group II. Eighteen (75%) CVID patients with a low percentage of CD21low B cells were in Group Ib while three patients classified as Group Ia. The significantly lower levels of IgG and IgA in Group Ia is a novel finding. The percentages of patients for Paris Classification groups MB0, MB1, MB2 were 88%, 4% and 8%, respectively. There was a significant increase of splenomegaly, lymphadenopathy and autoimmune cytopenia in Group MB0. EuroClass: 45.8% of patients were smB+ and 54.2% were smB-. Splenomegaly and lymphadenopathy were significantly higher in smB- group. TACI: One patient carried heterozygous C104R mutation which was known as disease causing. APRIL: G67R and N96S SNPs were detected in most of the patients and healthy controls. BAFF-R: P21R/H159Y compound heterozygous mutation (n:1) and P21R heterozygous mutations (n:3) were detected. +49 A > G changes in exon 1 of CTLA-4 gene: GG and AG genotypes increase the risk of CVID development 1.32 and 2.18 fold, respectively. 1564 T > C polymorphisms on 3′UTR region in exon 2 of ICOS gene was not found to be significantly different in CVID patients. CVID classifications were not helpful in determining the genetic etiology of CVID.