Influence of Maternal Hyperglycemia on IL-10 and TNF-α Production: The Relationship with Perinatal Outcomes
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This study was conducted to evaluate maternal and placental concentrations of interleukin 10 (IL-10) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in pregnant women with glycemic mean (GM) < or ≥100 mg/dL, as well as correlate IL-10 and TNF-α placental concentrations with perinatal outcomes.
One hundred eighty-six pregnant women were distributed in groups determined by a GM <100 mg/dL or a GM ≥100 mg/dL. The GM, HbA1c levels, maternal and placental concentrations of IL-10 and TNF-α, and the correlation of placental cytokines with perinatal outcomes were evaluated.
In maternal blood, the lowest concentrations of IL-10 (p = 0.0019) and TNF-α (p = 0.0185) were observed in the GM ≥100-mg/dL group. The placentas from GM ≥100 mg/dL group exhibited higher TNF-α concentrations (p = 0.0385). Placental IL-10 directly correlated with hemoglobin (r = 0.63; p = 0.02) and insulin (r = 0.78; p = 0.01) levels in the umbilical cord and with 1-min (r = 0.53; p = 0.0095) and 5-min (r = 0.69; p = 0.0003) Apgar scores. Placental TNF-α displayed a tendency to inversely correlate with fetal weight (r = −0.41; p = 0.05).
Compared to GM <100 mg/dL, GM ≥100 mg/dL was associated with a reduction in maternal IL-10 and TNF-α concentrations and increased placental TNF-α production. Placental IL-10 production was similar in both groups studied and directly correlated with hemoglobin and umbilical cord insulin levels, as well as with the 1- and 5-min Apgar scores.
KeywordsCytokines diabetes mild gestational hyperglycemia placenta perinatal outcomes
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