Successful Treatment with Infliximab for Inflammatory Colitis in a Patient with X-linked Anhidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia with Immunodeficiency
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X-linked anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency (X-EDA-ID) is caused by hypomorphic mutations in the gene encoding nuclear factor-κB essential modulator protein (NEMO). Patients are susceptibile to diverse pathogens due to insufficient cytokine and frequently show severe chronic colitis. An 11-year-old boy with X-EDA-ID was hospitalized with autoimmune symptoms and severe chronic colitis which had been refractory to immunosuppressive drugs. Since tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α is responsible for the pathogenesis of NEMO colitis according to intestinal NEMO and additional TNFR1 knockout mice studies, and high levels of TNFα-producing mononuclear cells were detected in the patient due to the unexpected gene reversion mosaicism of NEMO, an anti-TNFα monoclonal antibody was administered to ameliorate his abdominal symptoms. Repeated administrations improved his colonoscopic findings as well as his dry skin along with a reduction of TNFα-expressing T cells. These findings suggest TNF blockade therapy is of value for refractory NEMO colitis with gene reversion.
KeywordsNEMO colitis infliximab gene reversion
We profoundly thank for Dr. Kazuko Uno of the Louis-Pasteur Medical Research Center in Japan for support of our experiments and Dr. Maiko Kai and Dr. Naoki Karasawa1 for their warm care of patients. This study was supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan.
Conflict of Interests
The authors declare no competing financial interests.