Serodiagnostic Assays for Celiac Disease Based on the Open or Closed Conformation of the Autoantigen, Transglutaminase 2
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The autoantigen of celiac disease, transglutaminase 2 (TG2), adopts an open conformation during enzymatic activation. We studied diagnostic accuracy of serodiagnostic assays using TG2 in its open and closed conformation as antigens in patients with diagnostic difficulties. The open TG2 antibody (TG2ab) test identified 93% of untreated celiac patients in contrast to 44%, 27%, and 68% detected by closed and conventional TG2ab and endomysial antibody (EmA) tests, respectively. The assay was able to detect 60% of non-responding celiac patients seronegative for conventional TG2ab and EmA. The titers of the openTG2abs were higher than those of the closed TG2abs. The serological test utilizing TG2 in an open conformation was more accurate than the other assays in finding active celiac disease even in patients having negative or borderline conventional celiac autoantibodies and in revealing poor dietary response non-invasively. It thus offers a promising tool in the diagnostics and follow-up of celiac disease.