Chemokine Expression Patterns in the Systemic and Genital Tract Compartments are Associated with HIV-1 Infection in Women from Benin
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Understanding the genital mucosal immunity and the factors involved in linking innate to adaptive immunity is crucial for the design of efficient preventive strategies against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1.
Levels of both genital mucosal and blood chemokines were compared between 58 HIV-1-uninfected and 50 HIV-1-infected female commercial sex workers (CSWs) as well as 53 HIV-1-uninfected non-CSW control women at low risk for exposure, recruited in Cotonou, Benin.
HIV-1-infected CSWs had significantly higher blood and genital levels of monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-3/CCL7) and monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG/CXCL9) compared with those in both the HIV-1-uninfected CSW and non-CSW groups. In the HIV-1-infected group, levels of MCP-3 and MIG were significantly higher in the genital mucosa than in the blood. However, the blood levels of macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP-1a/CCL3) and MIP-1b/CCL4 were higher in HIV-1-uninfected CSWs compared with those in the other groups.
Increased production of chemokines in the genital tract may favour the recruitment of HIV-1 target cells causing a mucosal environment that promotes viral replication and dissemination, whereas higher expression of β-chemokines at the systemic level is associated with protection from HIV-1 infection.
KeywordsAfrica chemokine female genital tract HIV immunity mucosal and systemic
This work was supported by grant HOP-79213 from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) and by the Réseau SIDA from the Fonds de la Recherche en Santé du Québec (FRSQ). Julie Lajoie and Marguerite Massinga Loembe hold Student Research awards from the CIHR. Marguerite Massinga Loembe additionally held a fellowship from the AUF (Agence Universitaire de la Francophonie). Michel Alary and Michel Roger are recipients of Research Scholar awards from the FRSQ. We are indebted to Nassirou Geraldo, Aina Gabin, Carmelle Assogba and Clémence Agossa-Gbenafa for their clinical expertise, to Gérard Ahotin, Laurette Djossou and Ella Goma for their technical assistance and to Georges Batona and other field workers who helped with recruitment of CSWs.
M. Roger is the lead investigator of this study and with J. Lajoie and J. Poudrier, designed the experiments, performed the analysis and wrote the manuscript. J. Lajoie performed the experiments. M. Massinga Loembe, A-C Labbé, F. Guédou and M. Alary were responsible for the participants' recruitment and provided clinical and laboratory data. M. Massinga Loembe and F Leblond were responsible for the sample processing and data collection. All authors edited and approved the final version of the manuscript.
Conflicts of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
- 12.Lajoie J, Poudrier J, Massinga-Loembe M, Guédou F, Agossa-Gbenafa C, Labbé AC, et al. Differences in immunoregulatory cytokine expression patterns in the systemic and genital tract compartments of HIV-1 infected commercial sex workers in Benin. Mucosal Immunol. 2008;1:309–16.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar