Journal of Clinical Immunology

, Volume 25, Issue 6, pp 511–521

Manifold Mechanisms of Toll-Like Receptor-Ligand Recognition

Article

DOI: 10.1007/s10875-005-7829-1

Cite this article as:
Ishii, K.J., Coban, C. & Akira, S. J Clin Immunol (2005) 25: 511. doi:10.1007/s10875-005-7829-1

Abstract

Toll-like receptors recognize a diverse range of molecules derived from pathogens as well as host cells. As the number and diversity of TLR ligands and host factors increase, more questions are being raised. Here, we review recent advances toward understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying TLR-mediated direct or indirect recognition of their diverse range of ligands, including lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. The elucidation of such mechanisms may represent a key for developing novel immunotherapeutics for infectious diseases, allergies, or cancer and to intervene in immunological disorders such as autoimmune diseases.

Key Words

Innate Immunity TLR Ligands PRRs 

Abbreviations

CpG

cytosine-phosphate-guanine (5′-CG-3′)

GPI

glycosylphosphatidylinositol

IRAK

interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase

IRF

interferon regulatory factor

LPS

lipopolysaccharide

LTA

lipoteichoic acid

MAPK

mitogen-activated protein kinase

MyD88

myeloid differentiation primary response gene (88)

NOD

nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain

PAMP

pathogen-associated molecular pattern

PRR

pattern recognition receptors

RIP1

receptor (TNFRSF)-interacting serine-threonine kinase 1

TBK1

TANK-binding kinase 1

TIR

Toll/IL-1 receptor

TIRAP

TIR domain-containing adaptor protein

TRAF6

TNF receptor-associated factor 6

TRAM

TRIF-related adaptor molecule

TRIF

TIR domain-containing adaptor inducing IFN-ß

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ken J. Ishii
    • 1
    • 2
  • Cevayir Coban
    • 2
    • 3
  • Shizuo Akira
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Host Defense, Research Institute for Microbial DiseasesOsaka UniversityOsakaJapan
  2. 2.Exploratory Research for Advanced Technology (ERATO)Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST)ChiyodaJapan
  3. 3.21st Century COE Program, Research Institute forMicrobial DiseasesOsaka UniversityOsakaJapan
  4. 4.Department of Host Defense, Research Institute for Microbial DiseasesOsaka UniversityOsakaJapan

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