Journal of Clinical Immunology

, Volume 25, Issue 3, pp 275–280

Vitamin A Deficiency in Patients with Common Variable Immunodeficiency

  • Sara Sebnem Kilic
  • Esra Yapici Kezer
  • Yesim Ozarda Ilcol
  • Tahsin Yakut
  • Sami Aydin
  • Ismail Hakki Ulus


Vitamin A, a naturally occuring antioxidant micronutrient, has immunomodulating effect in patients with immunodeficiency, including an influence on cytokine production and lymphocyte growth and functions. Vitamin A deficiency is associated with a shift from type 2 cytokines to predominantly type 1 cytokines. The aims of this study were to determine Vitamin A status in Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) patients and the relationship between Vitamin A status and cytokines production. Serum Vitamin A, neopterin, TNF-alpha, IL-2, IL-4, and IL-10 levels were determined in 19 CVID patients and 15 healthy children. Effects of 9-cis retinal, Vitamin A derivative, on cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-10) production in lymphocytes were tested in vitro condition using lymphocyte cultures obtained from CVID patients and healthy children.

Serum Vitamin A level in CVDI patients was, 21.1± 1.5 μg/dL, significantly (p < 0.001) lower than the value, 35.7± 1.8 μg/dL, observed in healthy children. Serum neopterin level in the patients was, 9.8± 2.9 nmol/L, higher (p < 0.05) than the value, 3.9± 0.7 nmol/L, observed in control group. Common variable immunodeficiency patients, serum IL-4 level was significantly (p < 0.05) lower than the value observed for healthy children. Serum TNF-alpha, IL-2 and IL-10 levels were similar in the patients and healthy children. Vitamin A derivative, 9-cis retinal, increased TNF-alpha and IL-4 production in cultured mononuclear cells obtained from control and CVID patients. Vitamin A derivative, also, increased IL-2 and Il-4 production in cultured mononuclear cells obtained from CVID patients.

These results show that CVID patients have low serum Vitamin A levels and high serum neopterin levels. A supplementation with Vitamin A may have role in downregulation of inflammatory responses in CVID patients.

Key Words

Vitamin A common variable immunodeficiency cytokine neopterin 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sara Sebnem Kilic
    • 1
    • 5
  • Esra Yapici Kezer
    • 1
  • Yesim Ozarda Ilcol
    • 2
  • Tahsin Yakut
    • 3
  • Sami Aydin
    • 4
  • Ismail Hakki Ulus
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Pediatric ImmunologyUludag University School of MedicineBursaTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Biochemistry and Clinical BiochemistryUludag University School of MedicineBursaTurkey
  3. 3.Department of Medical GeneticsUludag University School of MedicineBursaTurkey
  4. 4.Department of Pharmacology and Clinical PharmacologyUludağ University School of MedicineBursaTurkey
  5. 5.Department of PediatricsUludag University Medical FacultyGörükle-BursaTurkey

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