Advertisement

Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry

, Volume 75, Issue 3, pp 305–318 | Cite as

Seasonal and annual trends of carbonaceous species of PM10 over a megacity Delhi, India during 2010–2017

  • S. K. SharmaEmail author
  • T. K. Mandal
  • A. Sharma
  • Saraswati
  • Srishti Jain
Article
  • 421 Downloads

Abstract

PM10 samples were collected to characterize the seasonal and annual trends of carbonaceous content in PM10 at an urban site of megacity Delhi, India from January 2010 to December 2017. Organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) concentrations were quantified by thermal-optical transmission (TOT) method of PM10 samples collected at Delhi. The average concentrations of PM10, OC, EC and TCA (total carbonaceous aerosol) were 222 ± 87 (range: 48.2–583.8 μg m−3), 25.6 ± 14.0 (range: 4.2–82.5 μg m−3), 8.7 ± 5.8 (range: 0.8–35.6 μg m−3) and 54.7 ± 30.6 μg m−3 (range: 8.4–175.2 μg m−3), respectively during entire sampling period. The average secondary organic carbon (SOC) concentration ranged from 2.5–9.1 μg m−3 in PM10, accounting from 14 to 28% of total OC mass concentration of PM10. Significant seasonal variations were recorded in concentrations of PM10, OC, EC and TCA with maxima during winter and minima during monsoon seasons. In the present study, the positive linear trend between OC and EC were recorded during winter (R2 = 0.53), summer (R2 = 0.59) and monsoon (R2 = 0.78) seasons. This behaviour suggests the contribution of similar sources and common atmospheric processes in both the fractions. OC/EC weight ratio suggested that vehicular emissions, fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning could be the major sources of carbonaceous aerosols of PM10 at the megacity Delhi, India. Trajectory analysis indicates that the air mass approches to the sampling site is mainly from Indo Gangetic plain (IGP) region (Uttar Pradesh, Haryana and Punjab etc.), Thar desert, Afghanistan, Pakistan and surrounding areas.

Keywords

PM10 Organic carbon Elemental carbon Carbonaceous aerosols 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors are thankful to the Director, CSIR-NPL, New Delhi and Head, Environmental Sciences & Biomedical Metrology Division (ES&BMD), CSIR-NPL, New Delhi for their encouragement. The authors also acknowledge the Ministry of Environment Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC), New Delhi for providing partial financial support for this study. The authors thankfully acknowledge to Ms. Jagriti Suneja, M.Sc. student of GGSIP University, New Delhi 110 078, India and Ms. Garima Kotnala, Junior Research Fellow (JRF) of CSIR-NPL, New Delhi 110 012, India for their significant contribution in backward trajectories analysis.

Supplementary material

10874_2018_9379_MOESM1_ESM.docx (2.7 mb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 2762 kb)

References

  1. Begum, B.A., Kim, E., Biswas, S.K., Hopke, P.K.: Investigation of sources of atmospheric aerosol at urban and semi-urban areas in Bangladesh. Atmos. Environ. 38, 3025–3038 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Begum, B.A., Akhter, S., Sarker, L., Biswas, S.K.: Gravimateric analysis of air filters and quality assurance in weighing. Nuclear Sci Applica. 15, 36–41 (2006)Google Scholar
  3. Begum, B.A., Biswas, S.K., Hopke, P.K.: Key issues in controlling air pollutants in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Atmos. Environ. 45(40), 7705–7713 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bernd, R.T., Simoneit, B.R.T., Kobayashi, M., Mochida, M., Kawamura, K., Huebert, B.J.: Aerosol particles collected on aircraft flights over the northwestern Pacific region during the ACE-Asia campaign: Composition and major sources of the organic compounds. J. Geophy. Res. Atmos. 109, D19S09 (2004)Google Scholar
  5. Bisht, D.S., Dumka, U.C., Kaskaoutis, D.G., Pipal, A.S., Srivastava, A.K., Soni, V.K., Attri, S.D., Sateesh, M., Tiwari, S.: Carbonaceous aerosols and pollutants over Delhi urban environment: temporal evolution, source apportionment and radiative forcing. Sci. Total Environ. 521–522, 431–445 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bond, T.C., Doherty, S.J., Fahey, D.W., et al.: Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: a scientific assessment. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118, 5380–5552 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cao, J.J., Chow, J.C., Lee, S.C., Li, Y., Chen, S.W., An, Z.S., Fung, K., Watson, J.G., Zhu, C.S., Liu, S.X.: Characterization and source apportionment of atmospheric organic and elemental carbon during fall and winter of 2003 in Xi’an, China. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 5, 3561–3593 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Castro, L.M., Pio, C.A., Harrison, R.M., Smith, D.J.T.: Carbonaceous aerosol in urban and rural European atmospheres: estimation of eecondary organic carbon concentrations. Atmos. Environ. 33, 2771–2781 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chow, J.C., Watson, J.G., Chen, L.W.A., Arnott, W.P., Moosmuller, H.: Equivalence of elemental carbon by thermal/optical reflectance and transmittance with different temperature protocols. Environ. Sci. Technol. 38, 4414–4422 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Datta, A., Saud, T., Goel, A., Tiwari, S., Sharma, S.K., Saxena, M., Mandal, T.K.: Variation of ambient SO2 over Delhi. J. Atmos. Chem. 65, 127–143 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Draxler, R.R., Rolph, G.D.: HYSPLIT (HYbrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) Model access via NOAA ARL READY Website (http: //www. arl.noaa.gov /ready /hysplit4.html). NOAA Air Resources Laboratory, Silver Spring, MD (2003)Google Scholar
  12. Jain, S., Sharma, S.K., Mandal, T.K., Saxena, M.: Source apportionment of PM10 in Delhi, India using PCA/APCS, UNMIX and PMF. Particuology. 37, 107–118 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jones, G.S.A., Jones, A., Roberts, D.L., Stott, P.A., Williams, K.D.: Sensitivity of global scale climate change attribution results to inclusion of fossil fuel black carbon aerosol. Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L14701 (2005)Google Scholar
  14. Kanakidou, M., Seinfeld, J.H., Pandis, S.N., Barnes, I., Dentener, F.J., Facchini, M.C., Van Dingenen, R., Ervens, B., Nenes, A., Nielsen, C.J., Swietlicki, E., Putaud, J.P., Balkanski, Y., Fuzzi, S., Horth, J., Moortgat, G.K., Winterhalter, R., Myhre, C.E.L., Tsigaridis, K., Vignati, E., Stephanou, E.G., Wilson, J.: Organic aerosol and global climate modelling: a review. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 1053–1123 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lawrence, M.G., Lelieveld, J.: Atmospheric pollutant outflow from southern Asia: a review. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10, 1017–11096 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Mandal, P., Saud, T., Sarkar, R., Mandal, A., Sharma, S.K., Mandal, T.K., Bassin, J.K.: High seasonal variation of atmospheric C and particulate concentrations in Delhi, India. Environ. Chem. Lett. 12, 225–230 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Masiello, C.A.: New directions in black carbon organic geochemistry. Marine Chemistry. 92(1-4), 201–213 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Panda, S., Sharma, S.K., Mahapatra, P.S., Panda, U., Rath, S., Mahapatra, M., Das, T.: Organic and elemental carbon variation in PM2.5 over megacity Delhi and Bhubaneswar, a semi-urban coastal site in India. Nat. Hazards. 80(3), 1709–1728 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ram, K., Sarin, M.M.: Spatio-temporal variability in atmospheric abundances of EC, OC and WSOC over Northern India. J. Aerosol Sci. 41(1), 88–98 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ram, K., Sarin, M.M., Tripathi, S.N.: One-year record of carbonaceous aerosols from an urban location (Kanpur) in the Indo-Gangetic Plain: characterization, sources and temporal variability. J. Geophys. Res. (2010).  https://doi.org/10.1029/2010JD014188
  21. Ram, K., Sarin, M.M.: Day–night variability of EC, OC, WSOC and inorganic ions in urban environment of Indo-Gangetic Plain: implications to secondary aerosol formation. Atmos Environ. 45(2), 460–468 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ram, K., Sarin, M.M., Sudheer, A.K., Rengarajan, R.: Carbonaceous and secondary inorganic aerosols during wintertime fog and haze over urban sites in the Indo-Gangetic Plain. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 12, 359–370 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Rengarajan, R., Sarin, M.M., Sudheer, A.K.: Carbonaceous and inorganic species in atmospheric aerosols during wintertime over urban and high-altitude sites in North India. J. Geophy. Res. 112, D21307 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Salameh, D., Detournary, A., Prey, J., Perez, N., Liguri, F., Saraga, et al.: PM2.5 chemical composition in five European Mediterranean cities: a 1-year study. Atmos. Res. 155, 102–117 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Salma, I., Chi, X.G., Maenhaut, W.: Elemental and organic carbon in urban canyon and background environments in Budapest, Hungary. Atmos. Environ. 38, 2517–2528 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Sharma, S.K., Mandal, T.K., Saxena, M., Rashmi, Rohtash, Sharma, A., Gautam, R.: Variation of OC, EC, WSIC and trace metals of PM10 in Delhi. J Atmos Sol Terr Phys. 113, 10–22 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Sharma, S.K., Mandal, T.K., Shenoy, D.M., Bardhan, P., Srivastava, M.K., Chatterjee, A., Saxena, M., Saraswati, Singh, B.P., Ghosh, S.K.: Variation of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes composition of PM10 over Indo Gangetic Plain of India. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 95(5), 661–669 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Sharma, S.K., Mandal, T.K., Jain, S., Saraswati, Sharma, A., Saxena, M.: Source apportionment of PM2.5 in Delhi, India using PMF model. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 97, 286–293 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Sharma, S.K., Agarwal, P., Mandal, T.K., Karapurkar, S.G., Shenoy, D.M., Peshin, S.K., Gupta, A., Saxena, M., Jain, S., Sharma, A., Saraswati: Study on ambient air quality of megacity Delhi, India during odd-even strategy. Mapan-J Metrol Soc India. 32(2), 155–165 (2017)Google Scholar
  30. Sharma, S.K., Mandal, T.K., Sharma, A., Jain, S., Saraswati: Carbonaceous species of PM2.5 in megacity Delhi, India during 2012-2016. Bull. Environ. Contamin. Toxicol. 100, 695–701 (2018a)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Sharma, S.K., Mandal, T.K., Dey, A.K., Deb, N.C., Jain, S., Saxena, M., Pal, S., Chouhuri, A.K.: Carbonaceous and inorganic species in PM10 during winter time over Indo Gangetic Plain of India. J. Atmos. Chem. 75, 219–233 (2018b)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Sjogren, S., Gysel, M., Weingartner, E., Balttensperger, U., Cubison, M.J., Coe, H., Zardini, A.A., Marcolli, C., Krieger, U.K., Peter, T.: Hygroscopic growth and water uptake kinetics of two phase aerosol particles consisting of ammonium sulfate, adipic and humic acid mixture. Aerosol Sci. 38, 157–171 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Srinivas, B., Sarin, M.M.: PM2.5, EC and OC in atmospheric outflow from the Indo-Gangetic Plain: temporal variability and aerosol organic carbon-to-organic mass conversion factor. Sci. Total Environ. 487, 196–205 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Szidat, S., Jenk, T.M., Synal, H.A., Kalberer, M., Wacker, L., Hajdas, I., Kasper-Gieblt, A., Baltensperger, U.: Contribution of fossil fuel, biomass burning and biogenic emissions to carbonaceous aerosols in Zurich as traced by 14C. J Geophys. Res. 111, D07206 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Tiwari, S., Srivastava, A.K., Bisht, D.S., Bano, T., Singh, S., Behura, S., Srivastava, M.K.: Black carbon and chemical characteristics of PM10 and PM2.5 at an urban site of North India. J. Atmos. Chem. 62, 193–209 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Venkataraman, C., Habib, G., Eiguren-Fernandez, A., Miguel, A.H., Friedlander, S.K.: Residential biofuels in South Asia: carbonaceous aerosol emissions and climate impacts. Science. 307, 1454–1456 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Waked, A., Favez, O., Alleman, L.Y., Piot, C., Petit, J.E., Delaunay, T., Verlinden, E., Golly, B., Besombes, J.L., Jaffrezo, J.L., Leoz-Garziandia, E.: Source apportionment of PM10 in a North-Western Europe regional urban background site (Lens, France) using positive matrix factorization and including pri-mary biogenic emissions. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 14, 3325–3346 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Zhang, Q., Worsnop, D.R., Canangaratna, M.R., Jimenez, J.L.: Hydocarbon-like and ogygenated organic aerosols in Pittsburgh: insights into sources and processes of organic aerosol. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 3289–3311 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. K. Sharma
    • 1
    Email author
  • T. K. Mandal
    • 1
  • A. Sharma
    • 1
  • Saraswati
    • 1
  • Srishti Jain
    • 1
  1. 1.Environmental Sciences and Biomedical Metrology Division, CSIR-National Physical LaboratoryNew DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations