Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry

, Volume 67, Issue 2–3, pp 71–86 | Cite as

Characterization of chemical properties of atmospheric aerosols over Anmyeon (South Korea), a super site under Global Atmosphere Watch

  • Sung-Hwa Park
  • A. S. Panicker
  • Dong-In LeeEmail author
  • Woon-Seon Jung
  • Sang-Min Jang
  • Min Jang
  • Dongchul Kim
  • Yu-Won Kim
  • Harrison Jeong


This paper reports aerosol chemical properties for the first time over a Korean Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) supersite, Anmyeon (36°32′N; 126° 19′E), during 2003–2004 period. Total suspended Particulates (TSP) showed significant seasonal variation with consistent higher mass concentrations during spring season (average of up to 230 ± 190 μg/m3). PM10 also followed similar trend with higher concentrations during spring (average of up to 170 ± 130 μg/m3) and showed reduced concentrations during summer. PM2.5 showed a significant increase during summer (average of up to 60 ± 25 μg/m3), which could be due to the influx of fine mode sea salt aerosols associated with the Changma front (summer monsoon). Chemical composition analysis showed enhanced presence of acidic fractions, majorly contributed by sulphates (SO 4 2- ) and nitrates (NO 3 - ) in TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 during different seasons. Enhanced presence of Calcium (Ca2+) was observed during sand storm days during spring. The high correlation obtained on matrix analysis between crustal ions and acidic ions suggests that the ionic compositions over the site are mainly contributed by terrestrial sources of similar origin. The neutralization factors has been estimated to find the extend of neutralization of acidicity by main basic components, and found to have higher value for Ammonium (up to 1.1) in different seasons, indicating significant neutralization of acidic components over the region by NH 4 + . Back trajectory analysis has been performed during different seasons to constrain the possible sources of aerosol origin and the results are discussed in detail.


Aerosols TSP PM10 PM2.5 



This work is supported by National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) through a grant provided by the Korean Ministry of Education, Science & Technology (MEST) in 2011 (No. K20607010000). The aerosol chemical datasets maintained in Anmyeon-do GAW center used in this study is gratefully acknowledged. Back trajectories obtained from HYSPLIT model are acknowledged with thanks. We thank two anonymous referees for their kind suggestions.


  1. Al-Khashman, O.A.: Ionic composition of wet precipitation in the Petra Region, Jordan. Atmos. Res. 78, 1–12 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Chatterjee, A., Adak, A., Singh, A.K., Srivastava, M.K., Ghosh, S.K., Tiwari, S., Devara, P.C., Raha, S.: Aerosol chemistry over a high altitude station at Northeastern Himalayas, India. PLoS ONE. 5, 1–20 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cooper, J.A.: Environmental impact of residential wood combustion emissions and its implications. J. Air Pollut. Control Assoc. 30, 855–861 (1980)Google Scholar
  4. Fang, G.C., Chang, C.N., Wu, Y.S., Fu, P.P., Yang, D.G., Chu, C.C.: Characterization of chemical species in PM2.5 and PM10 aerosols in suburban and rural sites of central Taiwan. Atmos. Environ. 234, 203–212 (1999)Google Scholar
  5. Gautam, R., Liu, Z., Singh, R.P., Hsu, N.C.: Two contrasting dust-dominant periods over India observed from MODIS and CALIPSO. Geophys. Res. Lett. 36, L06813 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Kim, B.G., Park, S.U.: Transport and evolution of a winter-time Yellow sand observed in Korea. Atmos. Environ. 35, 3191–3201 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Kim, K.W., Kim, Y.J., Oh, S.J.: Visibility important during Yellow Sand periods in the urban atmosphere of Kwangju, Korea. Atmos. Environ. 35, 5157–5167 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Kleinman, M.T., Tomezy, C., Leaderer, B.P., Tanner, R.L.: Inorganic nitrogen compounds in New York City air. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 322, 115–123 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ko, H.J., Kim, W.H., Lee, M.Y., Song, J.M., Kang, C.H., Kim, Y.P.: Variation of TSP Compositions in Accordance with the Pathways of Inflowing Air Mass at Jeju Island (in Korean). J. KOSAE. 27(3), 347–357 (2011)Google Scholar
  10. Kulshrestha, U.C., Kulshrestha, M.J., Sekar, R., Sastry, G.S.R., Vairamani, M.: Chemical characteristics of rainwater at an urban site of south-central India. Atmos. Environ. 37, 3019–3026 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Mori, I., Nishikawa, M., Iwasaka, Y.: Chemical reaction during the coagulation of ammonium sulphate and mineral particles in the atmosphere. Sci. Tot. Environ. 224, 87–91 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Mouli, P.C., Mohan, S.V., Reddy, S.J.: Chemical composition of atmospheric aerosol (PM10) at a semi-arid urban site: Influence of terrestrial sources. Environ. Monit. Assess. 117, 291–305 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Panicker, A.S., Pandithurai, G., Safai, P.D., Dipu, S., Lee, D.I.: On the contribution of black carbon to the composite aerosol radiative forcing over an urban environment. Atoms. Environ. 44, 3066–3070 (2010a)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Panicker, A.S., Pandithurai, G., Dipu, S.: Aerosol indirect effect during successive contrasting monsoon years over Indian sub continent: using MODIS data. Atoms. Environ. 44, 1937–1943 (2010b)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Rao, P.S.P., Momin, G.A., Safai, P.D., Ali, K., Naik, M.S., Pillai, A.G.: Aerosol and trace gas studies at Pune during INDOEX IFP-99. Curr. Sci. 80, 105–109 (2001)Google Scholar
  16. Safai, P.D., Rao, P.S.P., Momin, G.A., Ali, K., Tiwari, S., Naik, M.S., Kuniyal, J.C.: Chemical composition of size-separated aerosols at two rural locations in the Himalayan region. Indian J. Radio Space Phys. 30, 270–277 (2002)Google Scholar
  17. Safai, P.D., Rao, P.S.P., Momin, G.A., Ali, K., Chate, D.M., Praveen, P.S., Devara, P.C.S.: Variation in the chemistry of aerosols in two different winter seasons at Pune, Sinhagad. India. Aerosol Air Qual. Res. 5, 115–126 (2005)Google Scholar
  18. Seigneur, C., Saxena, P.: A theoretical investigation of sulfate formation in clouds. Atmos. Environ. 22, 101–115 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Seinfeld, J.H., Pandis, S.N.: Atmospheric chemistry and physics. Wiley, New York (1998)Google Scholar
  20. Twomey, S.: The influence of pollution on the shortwave albedo of clouds. J. Atmos. Sci. 34, 1149–1152 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Uematsu, M., Hattori, H., Nakamura, T., Narita, Y., Jung, J., Matsumoto, K., Nakaguchi, Y., Kumar, M.D.: Atmospheric transport and deposition of anthropogenic substances from the Asia to the East China Sea. Mar. Chem. 120, 108–115 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Wang, H., Han, G.: Chemical composition of rainwater and anthropogenic influences in Chengdu. Southwest China. Atmos. Res. 99, 190–196 (2011)Google Scholar
  23. Wang, Y., Zhuang, G., Sun, Y., An, Z.: The variation of characteristics and formation mechanisms of aerosol in dust, haze, clear days in Beijing. Atoms. Environ. 40, 6579–6591 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Watanabe, K., Kasuga, H., Yamada, Y., Kawakami, T.: Size distributions of aerosol number concentrations and water-soluble constituents in Toyama, Japan: a comparison of the measurements during Aisan dust period with non-dust period. Atmos. Res. 82, 719–727 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Watanabe, K., Honoki, H., Iwai, A., Tomatsu, A., Noritake, K., Miyashita, N., Yamada, K., Kawamura, H., Aoki, K.: Chemical characteristics of fog water at Mt. Tateyama, near the coast of the Japan Sea in Central Japan. Water, Air, Soil Pollut. 211, 379–393 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. WMO/GAW: Manual for the GAW precipitation chemistry programme-Guidelines, data quality objectives and standard operating procedures. WMO/GAW precipitation chemistry science advisory group. 36–50 (2004)Google Scholar
  27. Zang, X.Y., Gong, S.L., Arimoto, R., Shen, Z.X., Mei, F.M., Wnag, D., Cheng, Y.: Characterization and temporal variation of asian dust aerosol from site in the Northern Chinese Deserts. J. Atmos. Chem 44, 241–257 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Zhou, Y., Wang, T., Gao, X., Xue, L., Wang, X., Wang, Z., Gao, J., Zhang, Q., Wnag, W.: Continuous observations of water-soluble ions in PM2.5 at Mount Tai (1534 ma.s.l.) in central-eastern China. J. Atmos. Chem. 64, 107–127 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sung-Hwa Park
    • 1
  • A. S. Panicker
    • 2
  • Dong-In Lee
    • 2
    Email author
  • Woon-Seon Jung
    • 3
  • Sang-Min Jang
    • 1
  • Min Jang
    • 1
  • Dongchul Kim
    • 4
    • 5
  • Yu-Won Kim
    • 6
  • Harrison Jeong
    • 6
  1. 1.Atmospheric Environmental Research InstitutePukyong National UniversityBusanSouth Korea
  2. 2.Department of Environmental Atmospheric SciencesPukyong National UniversiyBusanSouth Korea
  3. 3.Interdisciplinary Program of Earth Environmental EngineeringPukyong National UniversityBusanSouth Korea
  4. 4.Goddard Earth Sciences and Technology CenterUniversity of Maryland Baltimore CountryBaltimoreUSA
  5. 5.Universities of Space Research AssociationColumbiaUSA
  6. 6.Korea Global Atmosphere Watch CenterKorea Meteorological AdministrationSeoulSouth Korea

Personalised recommendations