Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry

, Volume 62, Issue 1, pp 5–30 | Cite as

Hoarfrost and rime chemistry in Poland—An introductory analysis from meteorological perspective

  • Żaneta Polkowska
  • Mieczysław Sobik
  • Marek Błaś
  • Kamila Klimaszewska
  • Barbara Walna
  • Jacek Namieśnik


Hoarfrost and rime analysis was based on the collection of samples between 2003 and 2006 from 8 sites, which represent both lowland (northern) and mountainous (southern) parts of Poland. On the other hand 4 of these sites belong to “urban” and 4 to “rural” category. pH, conductivity, SO 4 2− , NO 3 , Cl, H+, NH 4 + , Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+ have been determined in order to study the chemistry of hoarfrost and rime. Higher total inorganic ionic content (TIC) in hoarfrost and rime (2.46 meq·l−1 and 1.23 meq·l−1 respectively) was observed when compared with precipitation (0.37 meq·l−1). Large variability of TIC and chemical composition of individual samples were typical at each of the measurement sites depending on emission patterns, atmospheric conditions and local terrain topography. Higher concentrations of both hoarfrost and rime occurred in southern (mountainous) rather than in northern (lowland) part of Poland which can be explained by worse pollutant dispersion conditions in the south. The surprisingly low hoarfrost concentrations in urban coastal stations in the area of the Bay of Gdansk were attributed to the cleaning effect of nocturnal breeze-type circulation, best pronounced in cool part of the year. Due to relatively high pollutant concentration and long duration, hoarfrost and rime are at least significant factors in environmental processes in different ecosystems in Poland.


Hoarfrost Rime Chemical composition Ionic correlation Atmospheric deposition Poland 



This scientific work was financially supported by science in 2006–2008 years as a research project (N N305 231035).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Żaneta Polkowska
    • 1
  • Mieczysław Sobik
    • 2
  • Marek Błaś
    • 2
  • Kamila Klimaszewska
    • 1
  • Barbara Walna
    • 3
  • Jacek Namieśnik
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Analytical Chemistry, Chemical FacultyGdansk University of Technology (GUT)GdańskPoland
  2. 2.Department of Climatology and Environment Protection, Institute of Geography and Regional DevelopmentUniversity of WroclawWrocławPoland
  3. 3.Jeziory Ecological StationAdam Mickiewicz UniversityMosinaPoland

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