Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry

, Volume 58, Issue 1, pp 41–53 | Cite as

Effect of moisture content on ammonia emissions from broiler litter: A laboratory study

  • Zifei Liu
  • Lingjuan Wang
  • David Beasley
  • Edgar Oviedo
Article

Abstract

A dynamic flow-through chamber system was designed to measure ammonia emissions from broiler litter and to investigate the responses of ammonia emissions to litter moisture content under laboratory-controlled conditions. It was observed that ammonia emissions from litter were very sensitive to litter moisture content. As water was added to the litter, the total ammoniac nitrogen content (TAN) in the litter increased, and can potentially increase ammonia emissions. However, measurements of ammonia concentrations in the chamber and total nitrogen losses from litter samples all suggested that water applied to the litter also had an effect of suppressing ammonia emissions for a short time. After enough time (1 to 2 weeks) was allowed, higher moisture content in litter eventually resulted in higher ammonia emissions. It was also noticed that, at very high litter moisture content, even when more time was allowed, ammonia concentrations began to decrease as moisture content further increased.

Keywords

Ammonia emissions Broiler litter 

References

  1. Aneja, V.P.: Dynamic studies of ammonia uptake by selected plant species under flow reactor conditions. Ph.D. Thesis, NC State University. Raleigh, NC. 216 (1976)Google Scholar
  2. Aneja, V.P., Chauhan, J.P., Walker, J.T.: Characterization of atmospheric ammonia emissions from swine waste storage and treatment lagoons. J. Geophys. Res. 105, 11535–11545 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arogo, J.P.W., Westerman, A.J., Heber, W.P., Robergae, J.J.: Classen. Ammonia in animal production. Paper No. 01-4089, Present at the 2001 ASAE Annual International Meeting in Sacramento, CA, St. Joseph, MI (2001)Google Scholar
  4. Battye, W., Aneja, V.P., Roelle, P.A.: Evaluation and improvement of ammonia emissions inventories. Atmos. Environ. 37(27), 3873–3883 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brewer, S.K., Costello, T.A.: In situ measurement of ammonia volatilization from broiler litter using an enclosed air chamber. Trans. ASAE 42(5), 1415–1422 (1999)Google Scholar
  6. Carlile, F.S.: Ammonia in poultry houses: A literature review. World Poult. Sci. J. 40, 99–113 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Carr, L.E., Wheaton, F.W., Douglas, L.W.: Empirical models to determine ammonia concentrations from broiler chicken litter. Trans. ASAE 33(4), 1337–1342 (1990)Google Scholar
  8. Da Borso, F., Chiumenti, R.: Poultry housing and manure management systems: recent development in Italy as regards ammonia emissions. Proceedings of the 8th International Conference of the FAO ESCORENA Network on Recycling of Agricultural, Municipal and Industrial Residues in Agriculture, RAMIRAN 98, Posters Presentation. 2, 15–21 (1999)Google Scholar
  9. Elliott, H.A., Collins, N.E.: Factors affecting ammonia release in broiler houses. Trans. ASAE 25(2), 413–424 (1982)Google Scholar
  10. Elwinger, K., Svensson, L.: Effect of dietary protein content, litter and drinker types on ammonia emission from broiler house. J. Agric. Eng. Res. 64, 197–208 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gates, R.S., Casey, K.D., Wheeler, E.F., Xin, H., Pescatore, A.J., Zajaczkowski, J.L., Bicudo, J.R., Topper, P.A., Liang, Y., Ford, M.: Broiler house ammonia emissions: U.S. baseline data. Proc of Multi-State Poultry Feeding and Nutrition and Health and Management Conference and Degussa Corporation’s Technical Symposium. May 25–27, (2004). Indianapolis, IN. Available at http://www.bae.uky.edu/ifafs/timeline.htm
  12. Guiziou, F., Beline, F.: In situ measurement of ammonia and green house gas emissions from broiler houses in France. Bioresour. Technol. 96, 203–207 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hutchings, N.J., Sommer, S.G., Andersen, J.M., Asman, W.A.H.: A detailed ammonia emission inventory for Denmark. Atmos. Environ. 35(11), 1959–1968 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hyde, B.P., Carton, O.T., O’Toole, P., Misselbrook, T.H.: A new inventory of ammonia emissions from Irish agriculture. Atmos. Environ. 37(1), 55–62 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lacey, R.E., Redwine, J.S., Parnell, C.B., Jr.: Particulate matter and ammonia emission factors for tunnel-ventilated broiler production houses in the Southern U.S. Trans. ASAE 46(4), 1203–1214 (2003)Google Scholar
  16. Lacey, R.E., Mukhtar, S., Carey, J.B., Ullman, J.L.: A review of literature concerning odors, ammonia, and dust from broiler production facilities: 2. flock and house management factors. J. Appl. Poult. Res. 13(3), 509–513 (2004)Google Scholar
  17. Lee, Y.H., Park, S.U.: Estimation of ammonia emission in South Korea. Water Air Soil Pollut. 135(1–4), 23–37 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Liang, Y., Xin, H., Tanaka, A., Lee, S.H., Li, H., Wheeler, E.F., Gates, R.S., Zajaczkowski, J.S., Topper, P., Casey, K.D.: Ammonia emissions from U.S. poultry houses: Part II – Layer houses. pp. 147–158, Proceedings of Third International Conference on Air Pollution from Agricultural Operations. Raleigh, NC. (2003)Google Scholar
  19. Moore, P.A., Jr., Daniel, T.C., Edwards, D.R., Miller, D.M.: Evaluation of chemical amendments to reduce ammonia volatilization from poultry litter. Poultry Sci. 75(3), 315–320 (1996)Google Scholar
  20. Ni, J.: Mechanistic models of ammonia release from liquid manure: a review. J. Agric. Eng. Res. 72, 1–17 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Nicholson, F.A., Chambers, B.J., Walker, A.W.: Ammonia emissions from broiler litter and laying hen manure management systems. Biosyst. Eng. 89(2), 175–185 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Redwine, J.S., Lacey, R.E., Mukhtar, S., Carey, J.B.: Concentration and emissions of ammonia and particulate matter in tunnel-ventilated broiler houses under summer conditions in Texas. U.S. Trans. ASAE 45(4), 1101–1109 (2002)Google Scholar
  23. Reece, F.N., Lott, B.D., Bates, B.J.: The performance of a computerized system for control of broiler-house environment. Poultry Sci. 64, 261–265 (1985)Google Scholar
  24. Roelle, P.A., Aneja, V.P., O’Connor, J., Robarge, W., Kim, D.-S., Levine, J.S.: Measurement of nitrogen oxide emissions from an agricultural soil with a dynamic chamber system. J. Geophys. Res. 104, 1609–1619 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Schecfferle, H.E.: The decomposition of uric acid in built-up poultry litter. J. Appl. Bacteriol 28, 412–420 (1965)Google Scholar
  26. Sims, J.T., Wolf, D.C.: Poultry waste management: agricultural and environmental issues. Adv. Agron. 52, 1–83 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Sutton, M.A., Place, C.J., Eager, M., Fowler, D., Smith, R.I.: Assessment of the magnitude of ammonia emissions in the United Kingdom. Atmos. Environ. 29(12), 1393–1411 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Tucker, S., Walker, A.W.: Hock burn in broilers. In: Garnsworthy, P.C., Haresign, W., Cole, D.J.A. (Eds.), Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition. Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, pp. 33–49 (1992)Google Scholar
  29. Valentine, H.: A study of the effect of different ventilation rates on the ammonia concentrations in the atmosphere of broiler houses. Br. Poultry Sci. 5, 149–159 (1964)Google Scholar
  30. Van der Hoek, K.W.: Emission factors for ammonia in The Netherlands. IIASA Workshop on Ammonia Emissions in Europe: Emission Factors and Abatement Costs, Luxemburg, Austria. (1991)Google Scholar
  31. Wheeler, E.F., Casey, K.D., Zajaczkowski, J.D., Topper, P.A., Gates, R.S., Xin, H., Liang, Y., Tanaka, A.: Ammonia emissions from U.S. poultry houses: Part III – Broiler houses. pp. 159–166, Proceedings of Third International Conference on Air Pollution from Agricultural Operations. Raleigh, NC. (2003)Google Scholar
  32. Witter, E., Kirchmann, H.: Effects of addition of calcium and magnesium salts on ammonia volatilization during manure decomposition. Plant Soil. 115(1), 53–58 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Xin, H., Liang, Y., Tanaka, A., Gates, R.S. Wheeler, E.F., Casey, K. D., Heber, A.J., Ni, J., Li., H.: Ammonia emissions from U.S. poultry houses: Part I – Measurement system and techniques, pp. 106–115, Proceedings of Third International Conference on Air Pollution from Agricultural Operations. Raleigh, NC. (2003)Google Scholar
  34. Zhao, D.W., Wang, A.P.: Estimation of anthropogenic ammonia emissions in Asia. Atmos. Environ. 28(4), 689–694 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zifei Liu
    • 1
  • Lingjuan Wang
    • 1
  • David Beasley
    • 1
  • Edgar Oviedo
    • 2
  1. 1.Biological and Agricultural EngineeringNorth Carolina State UniversityRaleighUSA
  2. 2.Department of Poultry ScienceNorth Carolina State UniversityRaleighUSA

Personalised recommendations