Numerical study of the tidal refraction effect on the open coast in southeastern Zhejiang

  • Xin ZhaoEmail author
  • Zhilin Sun
  • Shichang Huang
  • Xu Liu
  • Zijun Hu
Original Article


In this study, the tidal refraction effect on the open coast in southeastern Zhejiang, China, is numerically investigated using an MIKE21-based model. The accuracy of this numerical model was verified by comparing with the measured results. The model was then employed to simulate the tidal propagation and the impacts of intense reclamation planned in the study area. The co-tidal chart and iso-amplitude curves of M2 (principal lunar semi-diurnal), S2 (principal solar semi-diurnal), O1 (lunar diurnal), K1 (lunar diurnal), and the tidal current ellipses of the M2 constituent illustrate the different tidal refraction phenomena from underwater shoals to tidal flats on the open coast. The results showed that the tide spreads along the coast in underwater shoals, while it spreads toward the coast in tidal flats. The spreading direction of the tide was congruent with the main spindle of the M2 constituent tidal current ellipses. Furthermore, the tidal range decreased; tidal refraction effects were weakened after reclamation, and the tidal direction changed.


Tide system Tidal refraction Numerical model Southeast Zhejiang Intensity reclamation 



This study was partially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41406101), the National Key R&D Program of China (Grant No. 2018YFC0407505), and Zhejiang Science and Technology Planning Project (Grant Nos. 2017F30008, 2018F10023).


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Copyright information

© The Oceanographic Society of Japan and Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xin Zhao
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Zhilin Sun
    • 1
  • Shichang Huang
    • 2
  • Xu Liu
    • 2
  • Zijun Hu
    • 2
  1. 1.Ocean CollegeZhejiang UniversityZhoushanPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Zhejiang Institute of Hydraulics and EstuaryHangzhouPeople’s Republic of China

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