Advertisement

Journal of Oceanography

, Volume 75, Issue 2, pp 119–137 | Cite as

Origin of intraseasonal variability in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean: intrinsic variability and local and remote wind stress forcings

  • Chorong LeeEmail author
  • Shoshiro Minobe
  • Yoshi N. Sasaki
Original Article
  • 110 Downloads

Abstract

The eastern equatorial Indian Ocean (EEIO) experiences considerable intraseasonal variability (ISV) that arises from intrinsic variability in the ocean and/or is induced by atmospheric forcings. This study investigates the relative contributions to ISV from intrinsic variability and local and remote wind forcings using the Regional Ocean Modeling System. First, to evaluate the contributions of intrinsic variability and forced responses, we conducted three ensemble experiments with different initial conditions. The ensemble mean represents forced ISV whereas differences from the ensemble mean indicate intrinsic ISV. In the central EEIO, the forced ISV of temperature and zonal velocity is larger than the intrinsic ISV above 500 m of depth. This is strongly related to equatorial wave dynamics: the spatial and temporal variability of the forced ISV of temperature (zonal velocity) shows characteristics of equatorial Kelvin waves (Rossby waves). Second, to understand the roles of local and remote atmospheric forcings, especially those of wind stress, we conducted four regional forcing experiments in which intraseasonal wind forcings were retained in selected regions only and suppressed elsewhere. At the surface, local forcing dominates the ISV in the equatorial Indian Ocean. By contrast, in the subsurface, remote forcing also plays an important role in ISV. The deep penetration of oceanic ISV in the EEIO is caused by wind forcing in the western (west of 80°E) and middle-eastern (80°E‒100°E) regions. The influence of surface forcing penetrates eastward–downward for temperature and westward–downward for zonal velocity, consistent with Kelvin and Rossby waves, respectively.

Keywords

Intraseasonal variability Intrinsic variability Indian Ocean Numerical experiment Regional Ocean Modeling System Wind forcing 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank Dr. H. Tsujino in the Meteorological Research Institute of Japan for allowing us to use an early version of JRA55-DO before it was officially open. This study was supported by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) KAKENHI grant numbers 26287110 and 26610146.

References

  1. Balmaseda MA, Mogensen K, Weaver AT (2013) Evaluation of the ECMWF ocean reanalysis system ORAS4. Q J R Meteorol Soc 139(674):1132–1161.  https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.2063 Google Scholar
  2. Banzon V, Smith TM, Chin TM, Liu C, Hankins W (2016) A long-term record of blended satellite and in situ sea-surface temperature for climate monitoring, modeling and environmental studies. Earth Syst Sci Data 8(1):165–176.  https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-8-165-2016 Google Scholar
  3. Brandt P, Dengler M, Rubino A, Quadfasel D, Schott F (2003) Intraseasonal variability in the southwestern Arabian Sea and its relation to the seasonal circulation. Deep Sea Res Part II 50(12–13):2129–2141.  https://doi.org/10.1016/s0967-0645(03)00049-3 Google Scholar
  4. Carton JA (2005) Sea level rise and the warming of the oceans in the Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA) ocean reanalysis. J Geophys Res.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2004jc002817 Google Scholar
  5. Carton JA, Giese BS (2008) A reanalysis of ocean climate using Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA). Mon Weather Rev 136(8):2999–3017.  https://doi.org/10.1175/2007mwr1978.1 Google Scholar
  6. Chapman DC (1985) Numerical treatment of cross-shelf open boundaries in a barotropic coastal ocean model. J Phys Oceanogr 15(8):1060–1075Google Scholar
  7. Chatterjee A, Shankar D, Shenoi SSC, Reddy GV, Michael GS, Ravichandran M, Gopalkrishna VV, Rao EPR, Bhaskar TVSU, Sanjeevan VN (2012) A new atlas of temperature and salinity for the North Indian Ocean. J Earth Syst Sci 121(3):559–593.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12040-012-0191-9 Google Scholar
  8. Chen G, Han W, Li Y, Wang D, Shinoda T (2015) Intraseasonal variability of upwelling in the equatorial Eastern Indian Ocean. J Geophys Res Oceans 120(11):7598–7615.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2015jc011223 Google Scholar
  9. Chen GX, Han WQ, Li YL, McPhaden MJ, Chen J, Wang WQ, Wang DX (2017) Strong intraseasonal variability of meridional currents near 5°N in the Eastern Indian Ocean: characteristics and causes. J Phys Oceanogr 47(5):979–998.  https://doi.org/10.1175/jpo-d-16-0250.1 Google Scholar
  10. Dai A, Trenberth KE (2002) Estimates of freshwater discharge from continents: latitudinal and seasonal variations. J Hydrometeorol 3(6):660–687Google Scholar
  11. DeMott CA, Klingaman NP, Woolnough SJ (2015) Atmosphere–ocean coupled processes in the Madden–Julian oscillation. Rev Geophys 53(4):1099–1154.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2014rg000478 Google Scholar
  12. Ducet N, Le Traon PY, Reverdin G (2000) Global high-resolution mapping of ocean circulation from TOPEX/Poseidon and ERS-1 and -2. J Geophys Res Oceans 105(C8):19477–19498.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2000jc900063 Google Scholar
  13. Duncan B, Han W (2009) Indian Ocean intraseasonal sea surface temperature variability during boreal summer: Madden–Julian oscillation versus submonthly forcing and processes. J Geophys Res.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2008jc004958 Google Scholar
  14. Duvel JP, Vialard J (2007) Indo-Pacific Sea surface temperature perturbations associated with intraseasonal oscillations of tropical convection. J Clim 20(13):3056–3082.  https://doi.org/10.1175/jcli4144.1 Google Scholar
  15. Egbert GD, Erofeeva SY (2002) Efficient inverse modeling of barotropic ocean tides. J Atmos Ocean Technol 19(2):183–204. https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0426(2002)019<0183:eimobo>2.0.co;2Google Scholar
  16. Fairall C, Bradley EF, Hare J, Grachev A, Edson J (2003) Bulk parameterization of air–sea fluxes: updates and verification for the COARE algorithm. J Clim 16(4):571–591Google Scholar
  17. Feng M, Wijffels S (2002) Intraseasonal variability in the south equatorial current of the east Indian Ocean. J Phys Oceanogr 32(1):265–277Google Scholar
  18. Flather R (1976) A tidal model of the northwest European continental shelf. Mem Soc R Sci Liege 10(6):141–164Google Scholar
  19. Grunseich G, Subrahmanyam B, Wang B (2013) The Madden–Julian oscillation detected in aquarius salinity observations. Geophys Res Lett 40(20):5461–5466.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2013gl058173 Google Scholar
  20. Guan B, Lee T, Halkides DJ, Waliser DE (2014) Aquarius surface salinity and the Madden–Julian oscillation: the role of salinity in surface layer density and potential energy. Geophys Res Lett 41(8):2858–2869.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2014gl059704 Google Scholar
  21. Haidvogel DB, Arango HG, Hedstrom K, Beckmann A, Malanotte-Rizzoli P, Shchepetkin AF (2000) Model evaluation experiments in the North Atlantic Basin: simulations in nonlinear terrain-following coordinates. Dyn Atmos Oceans 32(3):239–281Google Scholar
  22. Han W (2005) Origins and dynamics of the 90-day and 30- to 60-day variations in the equatorial Indian Ocean. J Phys Oceanogr 35(5):708–728Google Scholar
  23. Han WQ, Yuan DL, Liu WT, Halkides DJ (2007) Intraseasonal variability of Indian Ocean sea surface temperature during boreal winter: Madden–Julian Oscillation versus submonthly forcing and processes (vol 112, artn C04001, 2007). J Geophys Res Oceans.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2007jc004544 Google Scholar
  24. Harada Y, Kamahori H, Kobayashi C, Endo H, Kobayashi S, Ota Y, Onoda H, Onogi K, Miyaoka K, Takahashi K (2016) The JRA-55 reanalysis: representation of atmospheric circulation and climate variability. J Meteorol Soc Jpn Ser II 94(3):269–302.  https://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj.2016-015 Google Scholar
  25. Harrison DE, Vecchi GA (2001) January 1999 Indian Ocean cooling event. Geophys Res Lett 28(19):3717–3720.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2001gl013506 Google Scholar
  26. Horii T, Ueki I, Ando K, Hasegawa T, Mizuno K, Seiki A (2015) Impact of intraseasonal salinity variations on sea surface temperature in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean. J Oceanogr 72(2):313–326.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10872-015-0337-x Google Scholar
  27. Horii T, Ueki I, Syamsudin F, Sofian I, Ando K (2016) Intraseasonal coastal upwelling signal along the southern coast of Java observed using Indonesian tidal station data. J Geophys Res Oceans 121(4):2690–2708.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2015jc010886 Google Scholar
  28. Hu RJ, Wei M (2013) Intraseasonal oscillation in global ocean temperature inferred from Argo. Adv Atmos Sci 30(1):29–40.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00376-012-2045-4 Google Scholar
  29. Iskandar I (2005) Intraseasonal Kelvin waves along the southern coast of Sumatra and Java. J Geophys Res.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2004jc002508 Google Scholar
  30. Iskandar I, McPhaden MJ (2011) Dynamics of wind-forced intraseasonal zonal current variations in the equatorial Indian Ocean. J Geophys Res.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2010jc006864 Google Scholar
  31. Iskandar I, Masumoto Y, Mizuno K, Sasaki H, Affandi AK, Setiabudidaya D, Syamsuddin F (2014) Coherent intraseasonal oceanic variations in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean and in the Lombok and Ombai Straits from observations and a high-resolution OGCM. J Geophys Res Oceans 119(2):615–630Google Scholar
  32. Jayakumar A, Vialard J, Lengaigne M, Gnanaseelan C, McCreary JP, Praveen Kumar B (2010) Processes controlling the surface temperature signature of the Madden–Julian oscillation in the thermocline ridge of the Indian Ocean. Clim Dyn 37(11–12):2217–2234.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-010-0953-5 Google Scholar
  33. Kobayashi C, Iwasaki T (2016) Brewer–Dobson circulation diagnosed from JRA-55. J Geophys Res Atmos 121(4):1493–1510.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2015jd023476 Google Scholar
  34. Le Traon PY, Nadal F, Ducet N (1998) An improved mapping method of multisatellite altimeter data. J Atmos Ocean Technol 15(2):522–534. https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0426(1998)015<0522:aimmom>2.0.co;2Google Scholar
  35. Li Y, Han W, Shinoda T, Wang C, Ravichandran M, Wang J-W (2014) Revisiting the wintertime intraseasonal SST variability in the tropical south Indian Ocean: impact of the ocean interannual variation*. J Phys Oceanogr 44(7):1886–1907.  https://doi.org/10.1175/jpo-d-13-0238.1 Google Scholar
  36. Li Y, Han W, Lee T (2015) Intraseasonal sea surface salinity variability in the equatorial Indo-Pacific Ocean induced by Madden–Julian oscillations. J Geophys Res Oceans 120(3):2233–2258Google Scholar
  37. Luo H, Bracco A, Di Lorenzo E (2011) The interannual variability of the surface eddy kinetic energy in the Labrador Sea. Prog Oceanogr 91(3):295–311Google Scholar
  38. Matthews AJ, Singhruck P, Heywood KJ (2010) Ocean temperature and salinity components of the Madden–Julian oscillation observed by Argo floats. Clim Dyn 35(7–8):1149–1168.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-009-0631-7 Google Scholar
  39. McCreary JP Jr (1984) Equatorial beams. J Mar Res 42(2):395–430Google Scholar
  40. McPhaden MJ, Foltz GR (2013) Intraseasonal variations in the surface layer heat balance of the central equatorial Indian Ocean: the importance of zonal advection and vertical mixing. Geophys Res Lett 40(11):2737–2741.  https://doi.org/10.1002/grl.50536 Google Scholar
  41. Mellor GL, Yamada T (1982) Development of a turbulence closure model for geophysical fluid problems. Rev Geophys 20(4):851–875Google Scholar
  42. Mogensen K, Balmaseda MA, Weaver A (2012) The NEMOVAR ocean data assimilation system as implemented in the ECMWF ocean analysis for System 4. ECMWF technical memorandum 668. European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Reading, UKGoogle Scholar
  43. Moore DW, McCreary JP (1990) Excitation of intermediate-frequency equatorial waves at a western ocean boundary: with application to observations from the Indian Ocean. J Geophys Res 95(C4):5219.  https://doi.org/10.1029/JC095iC04p05219 Google Scholar
  44. Nagura M, McPhaden MJ (2012) The dynamics of wind-driven intraseasonal variability in the equatorial Indian Ocean. J Geophys Res Oceans.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2011jc007405 Google Scholar
  45. Nonaka M, Sasai Y, Sasaki H, Taguchi B, Nakamura H (2016) How potentially predictable are midlatitude ocean currents? Sci Rep 6:20153Google Scholar
  46. Ogata T, Masumoto Y (2011) Interannual modulation and its dynamics of the mesoscale eddy variability in the southeastern tropical Indian Ocean. J Geophys Res.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2010jc006490 Google Scholar
  47. Ogata T, Sasaki H, Murty VSN, Sarma MSS, Masumoto Y (2008) Intraseasonal meridional current variability in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean. J Geophys Res.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2007jc004331 Google Scholar
  48. Ogata T, Nagura M, Masumoto Y (2017) Mean subsurface upwelling induced by intraseasonal variability over the equatorial Indian Ocean. J Phys Oceanogr 47(6):1347–1365.  https://doi.org/10.1175/jpo-d-16-0257.1 Google Scholar
  49. Oliver ECJ, Thompson KR (2010) Madden–Julian oscillation and sea level: local and remote forcing. J Geophys Res.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2009jc005337 Google Scholar
  50. Palastanga V, van Leeuwen PJ, Schouten MW, de Ruijter WPM (2007) Flow structure and variability in the subtropical Indian Ocean: instability of the South Indian Ocean countercurrent. J Geophys Res.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2005jc003395 Google Scholar
  51. Paulson CA, Simpson JJ (1977) Irradiance measurements in the upper ocean. J Phys Oceanogr 7(6):952–956Google Scholar
  52. Penduff T, Juza M, Barnier B, Zika J, Dewar WK, Treguier A-M, Molines J-M, Audiffren N (2011) Sea level expression of intrinsic and forced ocean variabilities at interannual time scales. J Clim 24(21):5652–5670Google Scholar
  53. Raj Parampil S, Bharathraj G, Harrison M, Sengupta D (2016) Observed subseasonal variability of heat flux and the SST response of the tropical Indian Ocean. J Geophys Res Oceans 121(10):7290–7307Google Scholar
  54. Reynolds RW, Smith TM, Liu C, Chelton DB, Casey KS, Schlax MG (2007) Daily high-resolution-blended analyses for sea surface temperature. J Clim 20(22):5473–5496Google Scholar
  55. Saji NH, Xie SP, Tam CY (2006) Satellite observations of intense intraseasonal cooling events in the tropical south Indian Ocean. Geophys Res Lett.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2006gl026525 Google Scholar
  56. Schiller A, Wijffels SE, Sprintall J, Molcard R, Oke PR (2010) Pathways of intraseasonal variability in the Indonesian throughflow region. Dyn Atmos Oceans 50(2):174–200.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dynatmoce.2010.02.003 Google Scholar
  57. Schott FA, Xie S-P, McCreary JP (2009) Indian Ocean circulation and climate variability. Rev Geophys.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2007rg000245 Google Scholar
  58. Sengupta D, Senan R, Goswami BN (2001) Origin of intraseasonal variability of circulation in the tropical central Indian Ocean. Geophys Res Lett 28(7):1267–1270.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2000gl012251 Google Scholar
  59. Sengupta D, Senan R, Goswami BN, Vialard J (2007) Intraseasonal variability of equatorial Indian Ocean zonal currents. J Clim 20(13):3036–3055.  https://doi.org/10.1175/jcli4166.1 Google Scholar
  60. Shchepetkin AF, McWilliams JC (2005) The regional oceanic modeling system (ROMS): a split-explicit, free-surface, topography-following-coordinate oceanic model. Ocean Model 9(4):347–404.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocemod.2004.08.002 Google Scholar
  61. Song Y, Haidvogel D (1994) A semi-implicit ocean circulation model using a generalized topography-following coordinate system. J Comput Phys 115(1):228–244Google Scholar
  62. Umlauf L, Burchard H (2003) A generic length-scale equation for geophysical turbulence models. J Mar Res 61(2):235–265Google Scholar
  63. Vialard J, Jayakumar A, Gnanaseelan C, Lengaigne M, Sengupta D, Goswami BN (2011) Processes of 30–90 days sea surface temperature variability in the northern Indian Ocean during boreal summer. Clim Dyn 38(9–10):1901–1916.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-011-1015-3 Google Scholar
  64. Webber BG, Matthews AJ, Heywood KJ, Kaiser J, Schmidtko S (2014) Seaglider observations of equatorial Indian Ocean Rossby waves associated with the Madden–Julian oscillation. J Geophys Res Oceans 119(6):3714–3731Google Scholar
  65. Webster PJ, Lukas R (1992) TOGA COARE: the coupled ocean–atmosphere response experiment. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 73(9):1377–1416Google Scholar
  66. Yu Z, Potemra J (2006) Generation mechanism for the intraseasonal variability in the Indo-Australian basin. J Geophys Res.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2005jc003023 Google Scholar
  67. Zhang C (2005) Madden–Julian oscillation. Rev Geophys.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2004rg000158 Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Oceanographic Society of Japan and Springer Japan KK, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chorong Lee
    • 1
    Email author
  • Shoshiro Minobe
    • 1
    • 2
  • Yoshi N. Sasaki
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Natural History Sciences, Graduate School of ScienceHokkaido University, Science 8th Bldg. 302SapporoJapan
  2. 2.Earth and Planetary Sciences, Faculty of ScienceHokkaido UniversitySapporoJapan

Personalised recommendations