Coastal upwelling events along the southern coast of Java during the 2008 positive Indian Ocean Dipole
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To understand the coastal upwelling system along the southern coast of Java, we investigated ocean temperature and salinity obtained from an Argo float. In 2008, a positive Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) event began to develop in early May and anomalously cool SST developed around south of Java from May to September. During the peak of the IOD, an Argo float successfully observed vertical structure of temperature and salinity within 90 km from Java. The float observed two intraseasonal-scale temperature cooling events in July and August, with significant upward movements of the thermocline more than 90 m. Concurrent with the signals, anomalous southeasterly alongshore winds, lowering of local SST and sea level, and upward expansion of high-salinity water were also observed. During the event in August, vertical velocity estimated by the anomalous wind stress agreed well with the observations. These results indicate that the Argo float observed the coastal upwelling, which was enhanced by the 2008 positive IOD, along the southern coast of Java.
KeywordsCoastal upwelling South of Java Argo float Sea level Indian Ocean Dipole Indian Ocean warm pool Air-sea interaction
AQC Argo data version 1.2 produced by JAMSTEC is used for this study (available online at http://www.jamstec.go.jp/ARGO/argo_web/argo/?page_id=100&lang=en). We thank UHSLC (http://uhslc.soest.hawaii.edu) for providing quality-controlled sea level data from tide gauges. We also thank the following data providers: NOAA OISST data were provided by NOAA/OAR/ESRL PSD, Boulder, Colorado, USA, from their website (http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/); Wind data of the QuikSCAT satellite were provided by Remote Sensing Systems (available online at http://www.remss.com); The altimeter products were produced by Ssalto/Duacs and distributed by AVISO, with support from Cnes; and wind stress data in the J-OFURO data set were provided by Tokai University (http://dtsv.scc.u-tokai.ac.jp/j-ofuro/index.html). We thank Y. Masumoto, M. Nagura and K. J. Richards for helpful discussions. This study was financially supported by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan, Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research for Young Scientists (B), 25800270.
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