Journal of Oceanography

, Volume 73, Issue 4, pp 403–426 | Cite as

Fifteen years progress of the TRITON array in the Western Pacific and Eastern Indian Oceans

  • Kentaro Ando
  • Yoshifumi Kuroda
  • Yosuke Fujii
  • Tatsuya Fukuda
  • Takuya Hasegawa
  • Takanori Horii
  • Yasuhisa Ishihara
  • Yuji Kashino
  • Yukio Masumoto
  • Keisuke Mizuno
  • Motoki Nagura
  • Iwao Ueki
Review

Abstract

The Triangle Trans‐Ocean Buoy Network (TRITON) project by the Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology began with deployment in the western tropical Pacific Ocean in 1998 and has shifted to steady, long-term observations since 1999. After on-site inter-comparison with the Autonomous Temperature Line Acquisition System mooring system of the Tropical Atmosphere and Ocean (TAO) array by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the TRITON array became the international TAO/TRITON array in 2000 as a key component of the Global Ocean and Climate Observing Systems. The TAO/TRITON array took over from the TAO array, which was developed during the Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere program (1985–1994), and replaced the western part of TAO with new additional real-time measurements of salinity and ocean currents. In 2001, two TRITON moorings were deployed in the eastern Indian Ocean for capturing the eastern pole of the Indian Ocean Dipole. From this initiative, the Indian Ocean Observing System (IndOOS) was designed, and the Indian Ocean mooring array (Research Moored Array for Africa–Asian–Australian Monsoon Analysis and Prediction) was developed as a key component of IndOOS. In this paper, 15 years of progress in the TRITON project in the western Pacific and eastern Indian Oceans is reviewed with regards to scientific outcomes, technological development, and collaborations with international and domestic partners. Future directions for sustainable observation in the Pacific and Indian Oceans are also discussed.

Keywords

TRITON array TAO array Pacific Ocean Indian Ocean Ocean observations Mooring system El Nino IOD Intraseasonal Seasonal Interannaual 

Abbreviations

ACC

Anomaly correlation coefficient

ADCP

Acoustic doppler current profiler

ATLAS

Autonomous temperature line acquisition system

BL

Barrier layer

CLIVAR

Climate variability and predictability (currently, climate and ocean variability, predictability, and change)

ECMWF

European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts

ENSO

El Niño-Southern oscillation

GCOS

Global Climate Observing System

GODAE (GOV)

Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment (GODAE Ocean View)

GOOS

Global Ocean Observing System

GOV OSEval TT

GODAE Ocean View Observing System Evaluation Task Team

GTMBA

Global Tropical Moored Buoy Array

HE

Halmahera Eddy

IMET

Integrated meteorology buoy

IndOOS

Indian Ocean Observing System

IOD

Indian Ocean Dipole

IOP

Indian Ocean Panel

ITCZ

Inter-tropical convergence zone

JAMSTEC

Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology

JMA

Japan Meteorological Agency

MD

Mindanao dome

MIO

Mutsu Institute of Oceanography

MISMO

Mirai Indian Ocean cruise for the Study of the MJO-convection Onset

MJO

Madden-Julian Oscillation

MLT

Mixed layer temperature

MRI

Meteorological Research Institute

m-TRITON

Mini size TRITON

NECC

North Equatorial Counter Current

NGCC

New Guinea Coastal Current

NGCUC

New Guinea Coastal Under Current

NOAA

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NPGO

North Pacific Gyre Oscillation

OHC

Ocean heat content

OOPC

Ocean observations panel for climate

OSE

Observing system experiment

PDO

Pacific decadal oscillation

PIRATA

Prediction and Research Moored Array in the Atlantic

PMEL

Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory

QD

Quasi-decadal

RAMA

Research Moored Array for African–Asian–Australian Monsoon Analysis and prediction

SPCZ

South Pacific Convergence Zone

SST

Sea Surface Temperature

TAO

Tropical Atmosphere and Ocean

TOGA

Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere

TPOS

Tropical Pacific Observing System

TRITON

Triangle Trans-Ocean Buoy Network

WCRP

World Climate Research Program

WWB

Westerly wind burst

WWV

Warm water volume

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Copyright information

© The Oceanographic Society of Japan and Springer Japan 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kentaro Ando
    • 1
  • Yoshifumi Kuroda
    • 1
  • Yosuke Fujii
    • 2
  • Tatsuya Fukuda
    • 1
  • Takuya Hasegawa
    • 1
  • Takanori Horii
    • 1
  • Yasuhisa Ishihara
    • 1
  • Yuji Kashino
    • 1
  • Yukio Masumoto
    • 3
  • Keisuke Mizuno
    • 1
  • Motoki Nagura
    • 1
  • Iwao Ueki
    • 1
  1. 1.Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and TechnologyYokosukaJapan
  2. 2.Meteorological Research InstituteTsukubaJapan
  3. 3.University of TokyoTokyoJapan

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