Journal of Oceanography

, Volume 72, Issue 2, pp 167–175 | Cite as

Decadal variations in mixed layer salinity in the Kuroshio Extension recirculation gyre region: influence of precipitation during the warm season

  • Tomoyuki Kitamura
  • Toshiya Nakano
  • Shusaku Sugimoto
Original Article

Abstract

The salinity of the mixed layer in the Kuroshio Extension recirculation gyre (KERG) region (28°–35°N, 141°–160°E) was examined over a period of 20 years (1993–2012), and was found to show low-frequency variations on a decadal (~10 years) timescale: salinity decreased during the periods 1995–2001 and 2006–2009, but increased over the periods 2002–2005 and 2010–2012. Salinity anomalies at the sea surface during the warm season (June–October) influenced salinity in the following winter. These warm-season anomalies were caused by precipitation changes related to the number of low-pressure systems passing over the KERG associated with a westward elongation/eastward shrinkage of the summertime North Pacific subtropical high, which is driven by the Pacific–Japan (PJ) teleconnection pattern.

Keywords

Kuroshio Extension recirculation gyre region Mixed layer salinity Precipitation Pacific–Japan (PJ) teleconnection pattern Storm track 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We appreciate comments from participants at the Research Meeting on Air–Sea Interaction in 2013, which was part of the Collaborative Research Program of HyARC, Nagoya University. We thank two anonymous reviewers for their valuable suggestions. This study was supported in part by funds from the Japan Society for Promotion of Science [Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists (B) 15K17756] and from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology [Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas 25106702, “A ‘hot spot’ in the climate system: Extratropical air–sea interaction under the East Asian monsoon system”].

References

  1. Adler RF, Huffman GJ, Chang A et al (2003) The version-2 global precipitation climatology project (GPCP) monthly precipitation analysis (1979–present). J Hydrometeor 4:1147–1167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Akima H (1970) A new method of interpolation and smooth curve fitting based on local procedures. J Assoc Comput Mach 17:589–602CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bingham FM (1992) Formation and spreading of subtropical mode water in the North Pacific. J Geophys Res 97:11177–11189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Boyer TP, Antonov JI, Baranova OK, Garcia HE, Johnson DR, Locarnini RA, Mishonov AV, Seidov D, Smolyar IV, Zweng MM (2009) World Ocean Database 2009, Chapter 1: introduction. In: Levitus S (ed) NOAA Atlas NESDIS 66. US Government Printing Office, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  5. Boyer TP, Antonov JI, Baranova OK, Coleman C, Garcia HE, Grodsky A, Johnson DR, R. Locarnini A, Mishonov AV, O’Brien TD, Paver CR, Reagan JR, Seidov D, Smolyar IV, and Zweng MM (2013) World Ocean Database 2013. Levitus S (Ed), A. Mishonov (Technical Ed) NOAA Atlas NESDIS 72, Silver Spring, MD, p 209Google Scholar
  6. Curry R, Dickson B, Yashayaev I (2003) A change in the freshwater balance of the Atlantic Ocean over the past four decades. Nature 426:826–829CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ducet N, Le Traon P-Y (2001) A comparison of surface eddy kinetic energy and Reynolds stresses in the Gulf Stream and the Kuroshio current systems from merged TOPEX/Poseidon and ERS-1/2 altimetric data. J Geophys Res 106(C8):16603–16622CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hanawa K (1987) Interannual variations in the wintertime outcrop area of subtropical mode water in the North Pacific. Atmos Ocean 25:358–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hanawa K, Kamada J (2001) Variability of core layer temperature (CLT) of the North Pacific subtropical mode water. Geophys Res Lett 28:2229–2232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hanawa K, Sugimoto S (2004) ‘Reemergence’ areas of winter sea surface temperature anomalies in the world’s oceans. Geophys Res Lett 31:L10303. doi:10.1029/2004GL019904 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hayasaki M, Kawamura R (2012) Cyclone activities in heavy rainfall episodes in Japan during spring season. SOLA 8:45–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hayasaki M, Kawamura R, Mori M, Watanabe M (2013) Response of extratropical cyclone activity to the Kuroshio large meander in northern winter. Geophys Res Lett 40:2851–2855CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hosoda S, Suga T, Shikama N, Mizuno K (2009) Global surface layer salinity change detected by Argo and its implication for hydrological cycle intensification. J Oceanogr 65:579–586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ishii M, Kimoto M (2009) Reevaluation of historical ocean heat content variations with time-varying XBT and MBT depth bias corrections. J Oceanogr 65:287–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ishii M, Kimoto M, Kachi M (2003) Historical ocean subsurface temperature analysis with error estimates. Mon Wea Rev 131:51–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Katsura S, Oka E, Qiu B, Schneider N (2013) Formation and subduction of North Pacific Tropical Water and their interannual variability. J Phys Oceanogr 43:2400–2415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kobayashi S, Ota Y, Harada Y, Ebita A, Moriya M, Onoda H, Onogi K, Kamahori H, Kobayashi C, Endo H, Miyaoka K, Takahashi K (2015) The JRA-55 Reanalysis: general specifications and basic characteristics. J Meteor Soc Japan 93:5–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kosaka Y, Xie SP, Lau NC, Vecchi GA (2013) Origin of seasonal predictability for summer climate over the Northwestern Pacific. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 110:7574–7579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Mantua NJ, Hare SR, Zhang Y, Wallace JM, Francis RC (1997) A Pacific interdecadal climate oscillation with impacts on salmon production. Bull Amer Meteor Soc 78:1069–1079CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Masuzawa J (1969) Subtropical mode water. Deep Sea Res 16:463–472Google Scholar
  21. Mizuno K, White WB (1983) Annual and interannual variability in the Kuroshio Current system. J Phys Oceanogr 13:1847–1867CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Nagano A, Uehara K, Suga T, Kawai Y, Ichikawa H, Cronin MF (2014) Origin of near-surface high-salinity water observed in the Kuroshio Extension region. J Oceanogr 70:389–403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Nakamura H, Nishina A, Minobe S (2012) Response of storm tracks to bimodal Kuroshio path states south of Japan. J Climate 25:7772–7779CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Nakano H, Tsujino H, Hirabara M, Yasuda T, Motoi T, Ishii M, Yamanaka G (2011) Uptake mechanism of anthropogenic CO2 in the Kuroshio Extension region in an ocean general circulation model. J Oceanogr 67:765–783CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Nakano T, Kitamura T, Sugimoto S, Suga T, Kamachi M (2015) Long-term variations of North Pacific tropical water along the 137°E repeat hydrographic section. J Oceanogr 71:229–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Nan F, Yu F, Wang R, Si G (2015) Ocean salinity changes in the northwest Pacific subtropical gyre: the quasi-decadal oscillation and the freshening trend. J Geophys Res 120:2179–2192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Nitta T (1987) Convective activities in the tropical western Pacific and their impact on the Northern Hemisphere summer circulation. J Meteor Soc Japan 65:373–390Google Scholar
  28. Qiu B, Chen S (2005) Variability of the Kuroshio Extension jet, recirculation gyre, and mesoscale eddies on decadal timescales. J Phys Oceanogr 35:2090–2103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Qiu B, Chen S (2006) Decadal variability in the formation of the North Pacific subtropical mode water: ocean versus atmospheric control. J Phys Oceanogr 36:1365–1380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Qiu B, Chen S (2010) Eddy–mean flow interaction in the decadally modulating Kuroshio Extension system. Deep-Sea Res 57:1098–1110Google Scholar
  31. Qiu B, Chen S, Schneider N, Taguchi B (2014) A coupled decadal prediction of the dynamic state of the Kuroshio extension system. J Clim 27:1751–1764CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Suga T, Kato A, Hanawa K (2000) North Pacific Tropical Water: its climatology and temporal changes associated with the climate regime shift in the 1970s. Prog Oceanogr 47:223–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Sugimoto S, Hanawa K (2005) Remote reemergence areas of winter sea surface temperature anomalies in the North Pacific. Geophys Res Lett 32(1):L01606. doi:10.1029/2004GL021410 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Sugimoto S, Hanawa K (2010) Impact of Aleutian Low activity on the STMW formation in the Kuroshio recirculation gyre region. Geophys Res Lett 37:L03606. doi:10.1029/2009GL041795 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Sugimoto S, Takahashi N, Hanawa K (2013) Marked freshening of North Pacific subtropical mode water in 2009 and 2010: influence of freshwater supply in the 2008 warm season. Geophys Res Lett 40:3102–3105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Sukigara C, Suga T, Saino T, Toyama K, Yanagimoto D, Hanawa K, Shikama N (2011) Biogeochemical evidence of large diapycnal diffusivity associated with the subtropical mode water of the North Pacific. J Oceanogr 67:77–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Wakabayashi S, Kawamura R (2004) Extraction of major teleconnection patterns possibly associated with anomalous summer climate in Japan. J Meteor Soc Japan 82:1577–1588CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Yan YF, Chassignet EP, Qi YQ, Dewar WK (2013) Freshening of subsurface waters in the northwest Pacific subtropical Gyre: observations and dynamics. J Phys Oceanogr 43:2733–2751CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Oceanographic Society of Japan and Springer Japan 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tomoyuki Kitamura
    • 1
    • 2
    • 4
  • Toshiya Nakano
    • 1
    • 2
  • Shusaku Sugimoto
    • 3
  1. 1.Global Environment and Marine DepartmentJapan Meteorological AgencyTokyoJapan
  2. 2.Oceanography and Geochemistry Research DepartmentMeteorological Research InstituteTsukubaJapan
  3. 3.Department of Geophysics, Graduate School of ScienceTohoku UniversitySendaiJapan
  4. 4.Ocean and Earth Division, Research and Development BureauMinistry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and TechnologyTokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations