Atlantic–Pacific asymmetry of subsurface temperature change and frontal response of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current for the recent three decades
- 440 Downloads
For the 32-year period from 1979 to 2010, trends of surface and subsurface temperature and meridional motion of the current system in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) region are studied with in situ observations and an eddy-resolving general circulation model. The observed and simulated surface temperature shows a similar pattern between the Atlantic and Pacific: warming to the north of the Subantarctic/Subtropical Fronts in the Atlantic and of the Subtropical Front in the Pacific and cooling to the south of those fronts. The subsurface temperature trend, again from both observation and model, reveals an asymmetric pattern between the Atlantic and Pacific: subsurface warming is dominant over the whole ACC region in the Atlantic, while both warming and cooling are significant in the Pacific, the former located to the north of the Subantarctic Front and the latter to the south. The model reveals that the ACC has generally shifted poleward in the Atlantic, while it has shifted equatorward around Subantarctic Front and Polar Front in the Pacific. The ACC shift is consistent with the overall subsurface temperature trend. The basin-scale difference of the ACC response can be related to the different regime of the trend in meridional gradient of the zonal wind stress to the north and south of 50–55°S and suggests a coupling of the ACC and overlying westerly on the multi-decadal time scale.
KeywordsAntarctic Circumpolar Current Atlantic Pacific Warming Frontal shift Multi-decadal variability
We thank Akira Taniguchi for his data handling of OFES. Discussion with Drs. Andy Hogg and Katsuro Katsumata are very helpful in interpreting the results. Comments and suggestions from two anonymous reviewers helped substantially improve this manuscript. This work was supported by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (22106009) of the MEXT of the Japanese Government, by the Cooperative Research Centre program of the Australian Government, through the Antarctic Climate and Ecosystems Cooperative Research Centre and by the Australian Government Department of the Environment, the Bureau of Meteorology and CSIRO through the Australian Climate Change Science Program.
- Boyer TP, Levitus S, Antonov JI, Conkright ME, O’Brien T, Stephens C (1998) World Ocean Atlas 1998 Vol. 5: salinity of the Pacific ocean, NOAA Atlas NESDIS 31. U.S. Government Printing Office, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
- Kalnay E, Kanamitsu M, Kistler R, Collins W, Deaven D, Gandin L, Iredell M, Saha S, White G, Woollen J, Zhu Y, Chelliah M, Ebisuzaki W, Higgins W, Janowiak J, Mo KC, Ropelewski C, Leetmaa A, Reynolds R, Jenne R (1996) The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 77:437–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Locarnini RA, Mishonov AV, Antonov JI, Boyer TP, Garcia HE (2010) World Ocean Atlas 2009, vol. 1. In: S Levitus (eds) Temperature, NOAA Atlas NESDIS, vol 68. NOAA, Silver Spring, pp 184Google Scholar
- Masumoto Y, Sasaki H, Kagimoto T, Komori N, Ishida A, Sasai Y, Miyama T, Motoi T, Mitsudera H, Takahashi K, Sakuma H (2004) A fifty-year eddy- resolving simulation of the world ocean: preliminary outcomes of OFES (OGCM for the Earth Simulator). J Earth Simulator 1:35–56Google Scholar
- Nakamura H, Sampe T, Tanimoto Y, Shimpo A (2004) Observed associations among storm tracks, jet streams and midlatitude oceanic fronts, in Earth’s climate: The Ocean-Atmosphere interaction. In: Wang C, Xie S-P, Carton JA (eds) Gophys, Monogr. Ser 147, AGU, pp 329–345Google Scholar
- Rintoul SR, Naveira Garabato AC (2013) Dynamics of the Southern Ocean circulation. In: Siedler G, Griffies S, Gould J, Church J (eds) Ocean Circulation and Climate: A 21st Century Perspective. 2nd edn, International Geophysics, 103. GB, Academic Press, Oxford, pp 471–492Google Scholar
- Sasaki H, Nonaka M, Masumoto Y, Sasai Y, Uehara H, Sakuma H (2008) An eddy-resolving hindcast simulation of the quasi-global ocean from 1950 to 2003 on the Earth Simulator. In: Hamilton K, Ohfuchi W (eds) High resolution numerical modelling of the atmosphere and Ocean, chap 10. Springer, New York, pp 157–186Google Scholar