Journal of Oceanography

, Volume 69, Issue 2, pp 277–283 | Cite as

Decadal variation of temperature inversions along Line P

  • Hiromichi UenoEmail author
Short Contribution


Hydrographic data measured for 50 years along Line P between the North American west coast and mid Gulf of Alaska as well as data from profiling float observations were analyzed to study the formation and variation of temperature inversions in the eastern subarctic North Pacific. Remarkable decadal to inter-decadal variation was observed in the magnitude of temperature inversions. This variation was mostly attributed to the variation of southward Ekman transport, eastward geostrophic transport, and surface cooling.


Temperature inversion Line P Gulf of Alaska 



The author would like to thank W. Crawford for his helpful comments and fruitful discussions. The author would also like to thank S. Okkonen and two anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments. We used ocean data along Line P archived by Fisheries and Oceans Canada at the Institute of Ocean Sciences ( Line P is managed and maintained by staff who work for Fisheries and Oceans Canada at the Institute of Ocean Sciences. The author thanks them for their efforts. The Argo float data used in this study were collected and made freely available by the International Argo Project and the national programs that contribute to it (; Argo is a pilot program of the Global Ocean Observing System. The author thanks S. Matsunaga for his support.


  1. Collecte Localisation Satellites (2011) SSALTO/DUACS user handbook: (M)SLA and (M)ADT near-real time and delayed time products, version 2rev4, Rep. SALP-MU-P-EA-21065-CLS, Ramonville St-Agne, FranceGoogle Scholar
  2. Crawford WR, Sutherland P, Hardenberg PV (2005) Cold water intrusion into the Gulf of Alaska in 2002. Atmos Ocean 43(2):119–128. doi: 10.3137/ao.430201 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Crawford WR, Galbraith J, Bolingbroke N (2007) Line P ocean temperature and salinity 1956–2005. Prog Oceanogr 75:161–178. doi: 10.1016/j.pocean.2007.08.017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. de Boyer Montégut C, Mignot J, Lazar A, Cravatte S (2007) Control of salinity on the mixed layer depth in the world ocean: 1 General description. J Geophys Res 112:C06011. doi: 10.1029/2006JC003953 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Di Lorenzo E, Fiechter J, Schneider N, Bracco A, Miller AJ, Franks PJS, Bograd SJ, Moore AM, Thomas AC, Crawford WR, Peña A, Hermann A (2009) Nutrient and salinity decadal variations in the central and eastern North Pacific. Geophys Res Lett 36:L14601. doi: 10.1029/2009GL038261 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dodimead AJ, Favorite F, Hirano T (1963) Salmon of the North Pacific Ocean Part II: Review of Oceanography of the Subarctic Pacific Region Bull 13. International North Pacific Commission, VancouverGoogle Scholar
  7. Emery WJ, Thomson RE (1998) Data analysis methods in physical oceanography. Elsevier, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  8. Favorite F, Dodimead AJ, Nasu K (1976) Oceanography of the Subarctic Pacific region, 1960–71 Bull 33. International North Pacific Commission, VancouverGoogle Scholar
  9. Freeland HJ (2007) A short history of Ocean Station Papa and Line P. Prog Oceanogr 75(2):120–125. doi: 10.1016/j.pocean.2007.08.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Freeland HJ, Cummins PF (2005) Argo: a new tool for environmental monitoring and assessment of the world’s oceans, an example from the N.E. Pacific. Prog Oceanogr 64(1):31–44. doi: 10.1016/j.pocean.2004.11.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Freeland HJ, Gatien G, Huyer A, Smith RL (2003) Cold halocline in the northern California current: an invasion of subarctic water. Geophys Res Lett 30. doi: 10.1029/2003GL016663
  12. Freeland HJ, Roemmich D, Garzoli S, LeTraon P, Ravichandran M, Riser S, Thierry V, Wijffels S, Belbéoch M, Gould J, Grant F, Ignazewski M, King B, Klein B, Mork K, Owens B, Pouliquen S, Sterl A, Suga T, Suk M, Sutton P, Troisi A, Vélez-Belchi P, Xu J (2010) Argo—a decade of progress. In: Hall J, Harrison DE, Stammer D (eds) Proceedings of Ocean Obs’09: sustained ocean observations and information for society, vol 2, Venice, Italy, 21–25 September 2009. ESA Publication WPP-306. doi: 10.5270/OceanObs09.cwp.32
  13. Kalnay E et al (1996) The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 77(3):437–471. doi: 10.1175/1520-0477(1996)077<0437:TNYRP>2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Oka E, Talley LD, Suga T (2007) Temporal variability of winter mixed layer in the mid- to high-latitude North Pacific. J Oceanogr 63(2):293–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Roden GI (1964) Shallow temperature inversion in the Pacific Ocean. J Geophys Res 69(14):2899–2914. doi: 10.1029/JZ069i014p02899 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Suga T, Motoki K, Aoki Y, Macdonald AM (2004) The North Pacific climatology of winter mixed layer and mode waters. J Phys Oceanogr 34(1):3–22. doi: 10.1175/1520-0485(2004)034<0003:TNPCOW>2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Uda M (1963) Oceanography of the subarctic Pacific Ocean. J Fish Res Bd Can 20:119–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ueno H, Yasuda I (2000) Distribution and formation of the mesothermal structure (temperature inversions) in the North Pacific subarctic region. J Geophys Res 105(C7):16885–16898. doi: 10.1029/2000JC900020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ueno H, Yasuda I (2001) Warm and saline water transport to the North Pacific subarctic region: World Ocean Circulation Experiment and Subarctic Gyre Experiment data analysis. J Geophys Res 106(C10):22131–22141. doi: 10.1029/2000JC000457 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ueno H, Yasuda I (2003) Intermediate water circulation in the North Pacific subarctic and northern subtropical regions. J Geophys Res 108(C11):3348. doi: 10.1029/2002JC001372 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ueno H, Yasuda I (2005) Temperature inversions in the subarctic North Pacific. J Phys Oceanogr 35(12):2444–2456. doi: 10.1175/JPO2829.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ueno H, Oka E, Suga T, Onishi H (2005) Seasonal and interannual variability of temperature inversions in the subarctic North Pacific. Geophys Res Lett 32(L20603). doi: 10.1029/2005GL023948
  23. Ueno H, Oka E, Suga T, Onishi H, Roemmich D (2007) Formation and variation of temperature inversions in the eastern subarctic North Pacific. Geophys Res Lett 34(L05603). doi: 10.1029/2006GL028715
  24. Wirts AE, Johnson GC (2005) Recent interannual upper ocean variability in the deep southeast Bering Sea. J Mar Res 63(2):381–405. doi: 10.1357/002224005369372 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Oceanographic Society of Japan and Springer Japan 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Fisheries ScienceHokkaido UniversitySapporoJapan

Personalised recommendations