Advertisement

Journal of Oceanography

, 64:721 | Cite as

Review of recent findings on the water masses and circulation in the East Sea (Sea of Japan)

  • Kuh Kim
  • Kyung-Il Chang
  • Dong-Jin Kang
  • Young Ho Kim
  • Jae-Hak Lee
Review

Abstract

Recent findings on water masses, biogeochemical tracers, deep currents and basin-scale circulation in the East/Japan Sea, and numerical modeling of its circulation are reviewed. Warming continues up to 2007 despite an episode of bottom water formation in the winter of 2000–2001. Water masses have definitely changed since the 1970s and further changes are expected due to the continuation of warming. Accumulation of current data in deep waters of the East/Japan Sea reveals that the circulation in the East/Japan Sea is primarily cyclonic with sub-basin scale cyclonic and anticyclonic cells in the Ulleung Basin (Tsushima Basin). Our understanding of the circulation of intermediate water masses has been deepened through high-resolution numerical studies, and the implementation of data assimilation has had initial success. However, the East/Japan Sea is unique in terms of the fine vertical structures of physical and biogeochemical properties of cold water mass measured at the highest precision and their rapid change with the global warming, so that full understanding of the structures and their change requires in-depth process studies with continuous monitoring programs.

Keywords

Sea of Japan water mass biogeochemical tracers warming circulation numerical modeling 

References

  1. Chang, K.-I., N. Hogg, M.-S. Suk, S.-K. Byun, Y.-G. Kim and K. Kim (2002): Mean flow and variability in the southwestern East Sea. Deep-Sea Res. I, 49, 2261–2279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Chang, K.-I., W. J. Teague, S. J. Lyu, H. T. Perkins, D.-K. Lee, D. R. Watts, Y.-B. Kim, D. A. Mitchell, C. M. Lee and K. Kim (2004a): Circulation and currents in the southwestern East/Japan Sea: Overview and review. Prog. Oceanogr., 61, 105–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chang, K.-I., Y.-B. Kim, K. Kim and J. C. Lee (2004b): Deep water flux through the Ulleung Interplain Gap in the southwestern East/Japan Sea. Proceedings of 2nd Workshop of PEACE, Kyushu Univ., Japan, 25–26 November 2004.Google Scholar
  4. Chen, C. T. A., A. S. Bychkov, S. L. Wang and G. Yu. Pavlova (1999): An anoxic Sea of Japan by the year 2200? Mar. Chem., 67, 249–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cho, Y.-K. and K. Kim (1994): Two modes of the salinity minimum layer in the Ulleung Basin. La mer, 32(3), 271–278.Google Scholar
  6. Clayson, C. A. and M. Luneva (2004): Deep convection in the Sea of Japan: A modeling perspective. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L17303, doi:10.1029/2004GL020497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gamo, T. (1999): Global warming may have showed down the deep conveyor belt of a marginal sea of the northwestern Pacific: Japan Sea. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 3137–3140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gamo, T., Y. Nozaki, H. Sakai, T. Nakai and H. Tsubota (1986): Spatial and temporal variations of water characteristics in the Japan Sea bottom layer. J. Mar. Res., 44, 781–793.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gordon, A. L., C. F. Giulivi, C. M. Lee, H. H. Furey, A. Bower and L. D. Talley (2002): Japan/East Sea thermocline eddies. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 32, 1960–1974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hahm, D., T. S. Rhee, D.-J. Kang and K.-R. Kim (2003): Influence of gas transfer velocity parameterization on air-sea CO2 exchange in the East (Japan) Sea. J. Korean Soc. Oceangr., 38, 135–142.Google Scholar
  11. Hirose, N., I. Fukumori and J.-H. Yoon (1999): Assimilation of TOPEX/POSEIDON altimeter data with a reduced gravity model of the Japan Sea. J. Oceanogr., 55, 53–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hirose, N., H. Kawamura, H. J. Lee and J.-H. Yoon (2007): Sequential forecasting of the surface and subsurface conditions in the Japan Sea. J. Oceanogr., 63, 467–481.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hogan, P. J. and H. E. Hurlburt (2000): Impact of upper ocean-topography coupling and isopycnal outcropping in Japan/East Sea models with 1/8° to 1/64° resolution. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 30, 2535–2561.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hogan, P. J. and H. E. Hurlburt (2006): Why do intrathermocline eddies form in the Japan/East Sea?; A modeling perspective. Oceanography, 19, 134–143.Google Scholar
  15. Kang, D.-J., K.-E. Lee and K.-R. Kim (2003a): Recent developments in chemical oceanography of the East (Japan) Sea with an emphasis on CREAMS findings: A review. Geosci. Journal., 7, 179–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kang, D.-J., S. Park, Y.-G. Kim, K. Kim and K.-R. Kim (2003b): A moving-boundary box model (MBBM) for oceans in change: An application to the East/Japan Sea. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 1299, doi: 10.1029/2002GL016486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kang, D.-J., J.-Y. Kim, T. Lee and K.-R. Kim (2004a): Will the East/Japan Sea become an anoxic sea in the next century? Mar. Chem., 91, 77–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kang, D.-J., K. Kim and K.-R. Kim (2004b): The past, present and future of the East/Japan Sea in change: a simple moving-boundary box model approach. Prog. Oceanogr., 61, 175–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kim, C.-H. and K. Kim (1983): Characteristics and origin of the cold water mass along the east coast of Korea. J. Oceanol. Soc. Korea, 18, 73–83.Google Scholar
  20. Kim, C.-H. and J.-H. Yoon (1999): A numerical modeling of the upper and the intermediate layer circulation in the Eat Sea. J. Oceanogr., 55, 327–345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kim, J.-Y., D.-J. Kang, E. Kim, J. H. Cho, C. R. Lee, K.-R. Kim and T. Lee (2003): Biological Pump in the East Sea Estimated by a Box model. The Sea, J. Korean Soc. Oceanogr., 8, 295–306 (in Korean with English abstract).Google Scholar
  22. Kim, K. and J. Y. Chung (1984): On the salinity-minimum and dissolved oxygen-maximum layer in the East Sea (Sea of Japan). p. 55–65. In Ocean Hydrodynamics of the Japan and East China Seas, ed. by T. Ichiye, Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kim, K., K.-R. Kim, J.-Y. Chung, B.-H. Choi, S.-K. Byun and G. H. Hong (1996): New findings from CREAMS observations: water masses and eddies in the East Sea. J. Korean Soc. Oceanogr., 31, 155–163.Google Scholar
  24. Kim, K., K.-R. Kim, D. H. Min, Y. Volkov, J. H. Yoon and M. Takematsu (2001): Warming and structural changes in the East (Japan) Sea: A clue to future changes in global oceans? Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 3293–3296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kim, K., K.-R. Kim, Y.-G. Kim, Y.-K. Cho, D.-J. Kang, M. Takematsu and Y. Volkov (2004): Water masses and decadal variability in the East Sea (Sea of Japan). Prog. Oceanogr., 61, 157–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kim, K. J. and Y. H. Seung (1999): Formation and movement of the ESIW as modeled by MICOM. J. Oceanogr., 55, 369–382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kim, K.-R. and K. Kim (1996): What is happening in the East Sea (Japan Sea)?: Recent chemical observations from CREAMS 93–96. J. Korean Soc. Oceanogr., 31, 164–172.Google Scholar
  28. Kim, K.-R., K. Kim, D.-J. Kang, S. Y. Park, M.-K. Park, Y.-G. Kim, H. S. Min and D. Min (1999): The East Sea (Japan Sea) in change: A story of dissolved oxygen. MTS Journal, 33, 15–22.Google Scholar
  29. Kim, K.-R., G. Kim, K. Kim, V. Lobanov, V. Ponomarev and A. Salyuk (2002): A sudden-bottom water formation during the severe winter 2000–2001: The case of the East/Japan Sea. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29, 1234, doi:10.1029/2001GL014498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kim, K.-R., Y.-K. Cho, D.-J. Kang and J.-H. Ki (2005): The origin of the Tsushima Current based on oxygen isotope measurement. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L03602, doi:10.1029/2004GL021211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kim, Y.-G. and K. Kim (1999): Intermediate waters in the East/Japan Sea. J. Oceanogr., 55, 123–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kim, Y. H., K.-I. Chang, J. J. Park, S. K. Park, S.-H. Lee, Y.-G. Kim, K.-T. Jung and K. Kim (2007): Comparison between a reanalyzed product by 3-dimensional variational assimilation technique and observations in the Ulleung Basin of the East/Japan Sea. J. Mar. Syst. (submitted).Google Scholar
  33. Kitani, K. (1987): Direct current measurements of the Japan Sea proper water. Rep. Japan Sea Nat. Fish. Res. Inst., 341, 1–6 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  34. Kwon, Y.-O., K. Kim, Y.-G. Kim and K.-R. Kim (2004): Diagnosing long-term trends of the water mass properties in the East Sea (Sea of Japan). Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L20306, doi: 10.1029/2004GL020881.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lee, H. J., J. H. Yoon, H. Kawamura and H.-W. Kang (2003): Comparison of RIAMOM and MOM in modeling the East Sea/Japan Sea circulation. Ocean and Polar Res., 25, 287–302.Google Scholar
  36. Lee, T., I.-N. Kim, D.-J. Kang, D.-J. and D. Kim (2007): Implications of deep nitrite in the Ulleung Basin. The Sea, J. Oceanol. Soc. Korea, 12, 239–243.Google Scholar
  37. Levitus, S., J. Antonov and T. Boyer (2005): Warming of the world ocean, 1955–2003. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L02604, doi:10.1029/2004GL021592.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Lie, H.-J., M.-S. Suk and C. Kim (1989): Observations of southeastward deep currents off the East Coast of Korea. J. Oceanol. Soc. Korea, 24, 63–68.Google Scholar
  39. Maizuru Marine Observatory (1985): Climatology of Hydrographic and Chemical Properties of the Japan Sea. 51 pp.Google Scholar
  40. Min, D.-H. and M. J. Warner (2005): Basin-wide circulation and ventilation studying the East Sea (Sea of Japan) using chlorofluorocarbon tracers. Deep-Sea Res. II, 52, 1580–1616.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Mitchell, D. A., W. J. Teague, M. Wimbush, D. R. Watts and G. G. Sutyrin (2005): The Dok Cold Eddy. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 35, 273–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Moriyasu, S. (1972): The Tsushima Current. p. 353–369. In Kuroshio, ed. by H. Stommel and K. Yoshida, University of Tokyo Press.Google Scholar
  43. Oh, D.-C., M.-K. Park, S.-H. Choi, D.-J. Kang, S. Y. Park, J. S. Hwang, A. Andreev, G. H. Hong and K.-R. Kim (1999): The air-sea exchange of CO2 in the East Sea (Japan Sea). J. Oceanogr., 55, 157–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Park, G.-H., K. Lee, P. Tishchenko, D.-H. Min, M. J. Warner, L. D. Talley, D.-J. Kang and K.-R. Kim (2006): Large accumulation of anthropogenic CO2 in the East (Japan) Sea and its significant impact on carbonate chemistry. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 20, GB4013, doi:10.1029/2005GB002676.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Park, K.-A., J. Y. Chung and K. Kim (2004): Sea surface temperature fronts in the East (Japan) Sea and temporal variations. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L07304, doi:10.1029/2004GL019424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Park, K.-A., J. Y. Chung, K. Kim and P. C. Cornillon (2005): Wind and bathymetric forcing of the annual sea surface temperature signal in the East (Japan) Sea. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L5610, doi: 10.1029/2004GL022197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Park, K.-A., D. S. Ullman, K. Kim, J. Y. Chung and K.-R. Kim (2007): Spatial and temporal variability of satellite-observed subpolar front in the East/Japan Sea. Deep-Sea Res. I, 54, 453–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Park, Y.-G., K.-H. Oh, K.-I. Chang and M.-S. Suk (2004): Intermediate level circulation of the southwestern part of the East/Japan Sea estimated from autonomous isobaric profiling floats. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L13213, doi:10.1029/2004GL020424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Postlethwaite, C. F., E. J. Rohling, W. J. Jenkins and C. F. Walker (2005): A tracer study of ventilation in the Japan/East Sea. Deep-Sea Res. II, 52, 1684–1704.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Senjyu, T., T. Aramaki, S. Otosaka, O. Togawa, M. Danchenkov and E. Karasev (2002): Renewal of bottom water after the winter 2000–2001 may spin-up the thermohaline circulation in the Japan Sea. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29, 1149, doi:10.1029/2001GL014093.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Senjyu, T., H.-R. Shin, J.-H. Yoon, Z. Nagano, H.-S. An, S.-K. Byun and C.-K. Lee (2005): Deep flow field in the Japan/East Sea as deduced from direct current measurements. Deep-Sea Res. II, 52, 1726–1741.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Seung, Y. H. and K. J. Kim (1997): Estimation of the residence time for renewal of the East Sea Intermediate Water using MICOM. J. Korean Soc. Oceanogr., 32, 17–27.Google Scholar
  53. Seung, Y. H. and J.-H. Yoon (1995): Some features of winter convection in the Japan Sea. J. Oceanogr., 51, 61–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Sudo, H. (1986): A note on the Japan Sea Proper Water. Prog. Oceanogr., 17, 313–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Takematsu, M., Z. Nagano, A. G. Ostrovskii, K. Kim and Y. Volkov (1999a): Direct measurements of deep currents in the northern Japan Basin. J. Oceanogr., 55, 207–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Takematsu, M., A. G. Ostrovskii and Z. Nagano (1999b): Observations of eddies in the Japan Basin interior. J. Oceanogr., 55, 237–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Talley, L. D., P. Y. Tishchenko, G. Mitchell, D.-J. Kang, D.-H. Min, A. Nedashkovskiy, D. Masten and P. Robbins (2001): Nitrite in a deep, oxygenated environment—the Japan/East Sea and Ulleung Basin. CREAMS 2001, Honolulu.Google Scholar
  58. Talley, L. D., V. Lobanov, V. Ponomarev, A. Salyuk, P. Tishchenko, I. Zhabin and S. Riser (2003): Deep convection and brine rejection in the Japan Sea. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 1159, doi: 10.1029/2002GL016451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Talley, L. D., P. Tishchenko, V. Luchin, A. Nedashkovskiy, S. Sagalaev, D.-J. Kang, M. Warner and D. H. Min (2004): Atlas of Japan (East) Sea hydrographic properties in summer, 1999. Prog. Oceanogr., 61, 277–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Talley, L. D., D.-H. Min, V. B. Lobanov, V. A. Luchin, V. I. Ponomarev, A. N. Salyuk, A. Y. Schcerbina, P. Y. Tishchenko and A. I. Zhabin (2006): Japan/East Sea water masses and their relation to the sea’s circulation. Oceanography, 19, 32–49.Google Scholar
  61. Teague, W. J., K. L. Tracey, D. R. Watts, J. W. Book, K.-I. Chang, P. J. Hogan, D. A. Mitchell, M.-S. Suk, M. Wimbush and J.-H. Yoon (2005): Observed deep circulation in the Ulleung Basin. Deep-Sea Res. II, 52, 1802–1826.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Tsunogai, S., K. Kawada, S. Watanabe and T. Aramaki (2003): CFCs indicating renewal of the Japan Sea Deep Water in winter 2000–2001. J. Oceanogr., 59, 685–693.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Uda, M. (1934): The results of simultaneous oceanographical investigations in the Japan Sea and its adjacent waters in May and June, 1932. Japan Imp. Fish. Exp. St., 5, 57–190 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  64. Watanabe, T., M. Hirai and H. Yamada (2001): High-salinity intermediate water of the Japan Sea in the eastern Japan Basin. J. Geophys. Res., 106(C6), 11437–11450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Yanagi, T. (2002): Water, salt, phosphorus and nitrogen budgets of the Japan Sea. J. Oceanogr., 58, 797–804.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Yoon, J. H. (1982a): Numerical experiment on the circulation in the Japan Sea. Part I. Formation of the East Korean Warm Current. J. Oceanogr. Soc. Japan, 38, 43–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Yoon, J. H. (1982b): Numerical experiment on the circulation in the Japan Sea. Part II. Influence of seasonal variations in atmospheric conditions on the Tsushima Current. J. Oceanogr. Soc. Japan, 38, 81–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Yoon, J. H. (1982c): Numerical experiment on the circulation in the Japan Sea. Part III. Mechanism of the Nearshore branch of the Tsushima Current. J. Oceanogr. Soc. Japan, 38, 125–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Yoon, J. H. and H. Kawamura (2002): The formation and circulation of the Intermediate Water in the Japan Sea. J. Oceanogr., 58, 197–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Yoshikawa, Y., T. Awaji and K. Akitomo (1999): Formation and circulation processes of Intermediate Water in the Japan Sea. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 29, 1701–1722.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Yun, J.-Y., L. Magaard, K. Kim, C.-W. Shin, C. Kim and S.-K. Byun (2004): Spatial and temporal variability of the North Korean Cold Water leading to the near-bottom cold water intrusion in Korea Strait. Prog. Oceanogr., 60, 99–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kuh Kim
    • 1
  • Kyung-Il Chang
    • 1
  • Dong-Jin Kang
    • 1
  • Young Ho Kim
    • 2
  • Jae-Hak Lee
    • 2
  1. 1.Research Institute of Oceanography/School of Earth and Environmental SciencesSeoul National UniversitySeoulKorea
  2. 2.Climate Change and Coastal Disaster Research DepartmentKorea Ocean Research and Development InstituteAnsanKorea

Personalised recommendations