The upper ocean response to a moving typhoon
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The upper ocean response to the translation speed of typhoons is studied using a three-dimensional primitive equation model. Similar models studied previously have applied stability criteria rather than the diffusion term to simulate the vertical mixing process. This study retains the diffusion term and uses the level-2 turbulence closure scheme to estimate the vertical eddy viscosity. The model results indicate that in the forced period, the mixed-layer temperature decrease is greater for a slow-moving storm due to stronger upwelling caused by the longer residence time. A fast-moving storm can attain a similar cooling intensity in the wake period if its residence time allows the wind to resonate with the current. The significant downward momentum diffusion and advection in the first few inertial periods of these events leads to strong, persistent inertial pumping throughout the upper ocean in the wake period. The mixed layer is further cooled by turbulent mixing supported by vertical current shears. Meanwhile, the upper thermocline exhibits a compensating temperature increase. The vertical transfer magnitude and penetration scale are smaller in the slow-moving case, when the inertial motion decays rapidly. The model results also indicate that the dominant cooling process can be inferred from the non-dimensional storm speed. However, this value may be misleading for rapidly moving storms in which the current response is so distant from the storm that little wind work is performed on the ocean.
KeywordsTyphoon mixed layer cooling inertial motion entrainment mixing resonant response
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