Advertisement

Journal of Oceanography

, Volume 62, Issue 4, pp 441–455 | Cite as

Spatial variations of rare earth elements in north pacific surface water

  • Yayoi Hongo
  • Hajime Obata
  • Dia Sotto Alibo
  • Yoshiyuki Nozaki
Original Article

Abstract

The concentration of dissolved rare earth elements (REE) were determined at 47 stations in the North Pacific surface waters. Combining with other previous data, we present the surface REE distribution in the North Pacific and discuss the controlling factors. The surface concentrations increase toward the high latitude and continental margin (e.g. [Nd] > 10 pmol kg−1) from the central North Pacific (e.g. [Nd] < 5 pmol kg−1). The North Pacific Deep Water-normalized REE patterns are varied, indicating that two or more factors contribute to the REE distribution. We examined four factors making the regional variation of surface REE concentrations mainly; a) particle scavenging, b) atmospheric dust input, c) vertical mixing and d) lateral transport from the coastal region. Flux calculations for Nd showed that the influence of atmospheric dust was less significant than the vertical input even in the western upwelling zone. Moreover, the longitudinal and latitudinal transitions of surface REE seem to reflect the lateral supply from the coastal areas. We constructed the diagram of surface Er/Lu and Er/Yb molar ratios in order to assess the origin and the input processes of the surface REE. Both molar ratios showed increasing trend toward PEW (Er/Lu (>10.5) and Er/Yb (>1.4)) from PSUW (Er/Lu (>7) and Er/Yb (>1.2)). The high Er/Lu and Er/Yb ratios in PEW indicate that the lateral supply of terrestrial materials from the coastal area is possibly the important factor in PEW, because only weathering and dissolution of rocks can explain such high Er/Lu and Er/Yb ratios to our knowledge.

Keywords

Rare earth elements North Pacific surface water Er/Lu molar ratio Er/Yb molar ratio local source 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alibo, D. S. and Y. Nozaki (1999): Rare earth elements in seawater: particle association, shale-normalization, and Ce oxidation. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 63, 363–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Amakawa, H., D. S. Alibo and Y. Nozaki (2000): Nd isotopic composition and REE pattern in the surface waters of the eastern Indian Ocean and its adjacent seas. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 64, 1715–1727.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Amakawa, H., D. S. Alibo and Y. Nozaki (2004a): Nd concentration and isotopic composition distributions in surface waters of Northwest Pacific Ocean and its adjacent seas. Geochem. J., 38, 493–504.Google Scholar
  4. Amakawa, H., Y. Nozaki, D. S. Alibo, J. Zhang, K. Fukukawa and H. Nagai (2004b): Neodymium isotopic variations in Northwest Pacific waters. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 68, 715–727.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bertram, C. J. and H. Elderfield (1993): The geochemical balances of the rare earth elements and neodymium isotopes in the oceans. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 57, 1957–1986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Byrne, R. H. and K. H. Kim (1990): Rare-earth element scavenging in seawater. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 54, 2645–2656.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Byrne, R. H. and E. R. Sholkovitz (1996): Marine chemistry and geochemistry of the lanthanides. p. 497–593. In Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths, 23, ed. by K. A. Gschneider, Jr. and L. Eyring, Elsevier Science, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  8. Ding, S. L., J. M. Sun, S. L. Yang and T. S. Liu (2001): Geochemistry of the Pliocene red clay formation in the Chinese Loess Plateau and implications for its origin, source provenance and paleoclimate change. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 65, 901–913.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Elderfield, H. (1988): The oceanic chemistry of rare earth elements. Philos. Trans R. Soc. London, 325, 105–126.Google Scholar
  10. Elderfield, H. and M. J. Greaves (1982): The rare earth elements in sea-water. Nature, 296, 214–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Emery, W. J. (2001): Water types and water masses. p. 3179–3187. In Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences, Vol. 6, ed. by J. H. Steele, S. A. Thorpe and K. K. Turekian, Academic Press Inc., London.Google Scholar
  12. Evensen, N. M., P. J. Hamilton and R. K. O’Nion (1978): Rare earth abundance in chondritic meteorites. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 42, 1199–1212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. German, C. R., T. Masuzawa, M. J. Greaves, H. Elderfield and J. M. Edmond (1995): Dissolved rare earth elements in the Southern Ocean: Ce oxidation and the influence of hydrography. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 59, 1551–1558.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Greaves, M. J., P. J. Statham and H. Elderfield (1994): Rare earth element mobilization from marine atmospheric dust into seawater. Mar. Chem., 46, 255–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Greaves, M. J., H. Elderfield and E. R. Sholkovitz (1999): Aeolian sources of rare earth elements to the Western Pacific Ocean. Mar. Chem., 68, 31–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Greaves, M. J., H. Elderfield and E. R. Sholkovitz (2001): Corrigendum: Aeolian sources of rare earth elements to the Western Pacific Ocean. Mar. Chem., 74, 319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hannigan, R. E. and E. R. Sholkovitz (2001): The development of middle rare earth element enrichments in freshwaters: weathering of phosphate minerals. Chem. Geol., 175, 495–508.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Harrison, P. J., P. W. Boyd, D. E. Varela, S. Takeda, A. Shiomoto and T. Odate (1999): Comparison of factors controlling phytoplankton productivity in NE and NW subarctic Pacific gyres. Prog. Oceanogr., 43, 205–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Henry F., C. Jeandel, B. Dupre and J. F. Minster (1994): Particulate and Dissolved nd in the western Mediterranean-sea-sources, fate and budget. Mar. Chem., 45, 283–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Jeandel, C., J. K. Bishop and A. Zinder (1995): Exchange of Neodymium and its isotopes between seawater and small and large particles in the Sargasso sea. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 59, 535–547.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Koeppenkastrop, D. and E. H. DeCarlo (1992): Sorption of rare-earth elements from seawater onto synthetic mineral particles-an experimental approach. Chem. Geol., 95, 251–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lacan, F. and C. Jeandel (2001): Tracing Papua New Guinea imprint on the central Equatorial Pacific ocean using neodymium isotopic compositions and Rare Earth Element patterns. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 186, 497–512.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Landing, W. M. and K. W. Bruland (1980): Manganese in the North Pacific. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 49, 45–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Liu, C. Q., H. Shimizu, S. Nakai, G. H. Xie and A. Masuda (1990): Isotopic and trace element studies for Cenozoic volcanic rocks from western China: Implication for a crustal-like enriched component in the mantle. Geochem. J., 24, 327–342.Google Scholar
  25. Luo, Y. R. and R. H. Byrne (2004): Carbonate complexation of yttrium and rare earth elements in natural waters. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 68, 691–699.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Martin, J. H. and R. M. Gordon (1988): Northeast Pacific iron distributions in relation to phytoplankton productivity. Deep-Sea Res., 35, 177–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Martin, J. H., R. M. Gordon, S. Fitzwater and W. W. Broenkow (1989): VERTEX: phytoplankton/iron studies in the Gulf of Alaska. Deep-Sea Res., 36, 649–680.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Masuzawa, T. and M. Koyama (1989): Settling particles with positive Ce anomalies from the Japan Sea. Geophys. Res. Lett., 16, 503–506.Google Scholar
  29. McCulloch, M. T. and M. R. Perfit (1981): 143Nd/144Nd, 87Sr/ 86Sr and trace element constraints on the petrogenesis of Aleutian island arc magmas. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 56, 167–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Moffett, J. W. (1990): Microbially mediated cerium oxidation in seawater. Nature, 345, 421–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Moffett, J. W. (1994a): A radiotracer study of cerium and manganese uptake onto suspended particles in Chesapeake Bay. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 58, 695–703.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Moffett, J. W. (1994b): The relationship between cerium and manganese oxidation in the marine environment. Limnol. Oceanogr., 39, 1309–1318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Moffett, J. W. and J. Ho (1996): Oxidation of cobalt and manganese in seawater via a common microbially catalyzed pathway. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 60, 3415–3424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Moore, J. K., S. C. Doney, J. A. Kleypas, D. M. Glover and I. Y. Fung (2001): An intermediate complexity marine ecosystem model for the global domain. Deep-Sea Res. Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, 49, 403–462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Nakai, S., A. N. Halliday and D. K. Rea (1993): Provenance of dust in the Pacific-Ocean. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 119, 143–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Nozaki, Y. (2001): Rare earth elements and their isotopes. p. 2354–2366. In Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences, l.4, ed. by J. H. Steele, S. A. Thorpe and K. K. Turekian, Academic Press Inc., London.Google Scholar
  37. Nozaki, Y. and J. Zhang (1995): The rare earth elements and yttrium in the coastal/offshore mixing zone of Tokyo Bay waters and the Kuroshio. p. 171–184. In Biogeochemical Processes and Ocean Flux in the Western Pacific, ed. by H. Sakai and Y. Nozaki, Terra Scientific Publishing Company (TERRAPUB), Tokyo.Google Scholar
  38. Nozaki, Y., J. Zhang and A. Takeda (1997a): 210Pb and 210Po in the equatorial Pacific and the Bering Sea: the effects of biological productivity and boundary scavenging. Deep-Sea Res. Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, 44, 2203–2220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Nozaki, Y., J. Zhang and H. Amakawa (1997b): The fractionation between Y and Ho in the marine environment. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 148, 329–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Nozaki, Y., D. S. Alibo, H. Amakawa, T. Gamo and H. Hasumoto (1999): Dissolved rare earth elements and hydrography in the Sulu Sea. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 63, 2171–2181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Orians, K. J. and K. W. Bruland (1986): The biogeochemistry of aluminum in Pacific Ocean. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 78, 397–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Piepgrass, D. J. and S. B. Jacobsen (1992): The behavior of rare earth elements in seawater: Precise determination of variations in the North Pacific water column. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 56, 1851–1862.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Qiu, B. (2001): Kuroshio and Oyashio Currents. p. 1413–1425. In Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences, l.4, ed. by J. H. Steele, S. A. Thorpe and K. K. Turekian, Academic Press Inc., London.Google Scholar
  44. Schaule, B. K. and C. C. Petterson (1981): Lead concentrations in the northeast Pacific: evidence for global anthropogenic perturbations. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 54, 97–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Shojaat, B., A. A. Hassanipak, K. Mobasher and A. M. Ghazi (2003): Petrology, geochemistry and tectonics of the Sabzevar ophiolite, North Central Iran. J. Asian Earth Sci., 21, 1053–1067.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Sholkovitz, E. R. and D. L. Schneider (1991): Cerium redox cycles and rare earth elements in the Sargasso Sea. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 55, 2737–2743.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Sholkovitz, E. R., W. M. Landing and B. L. Lewis (1994): Ocean particle chemistry: The fractionation of rare earth elements between suspended particles and seawater. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 58, 1567–1580.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Sholkovitz, E. R., H. Elderfield, R. Szymczak and K. Casey (1999): Island weathering: river source of rare earth elements to the western Pacific Ocean. Mar. Chem., 68, 39–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Tachikawa, K., C. Jeandel A. Vangriesheim and B. Dupre (1999): Distribution of rare earth elements and neodymium isotopes in suspended particles of the tropical Atlantic Ocean (EUMELI site). Deep-Sea Res., 46, 733–755.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Tachikawa K., V. Athias and C. Jeandel (2003): Neodymium budget in the modern ocean and paleo-oceanographic implications. J. Geophys. Res., C108 10-2–10-3.Google Scholar
  51. Taylor, S. R. and S. M. McLennan (1985): An examination of the geochemical record preserved in sedimentary rocks. In The Continental Crust—Its Composition and Evolution, Blackwell, Oxford, 312 pp.Google Scholar
  52. Uematsu, M., Z. Wang and I. Uno (2003): Atmospheric input of mineral dust to the western North Pacific region based on direct measurements and a regional chemical transport model. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 16645–16648.Google Scholar
  53. Yokoo, Y., T. Nakano, M. Nishikawa and H. Quan (2004): Mineralogical variation of Sr-Nd isotopic and elemental compositions in loess and desert sand from the central Loess Plateau in China as a provenance tracer of wet and dry deposition in the northwestern Pacific. Chem. Geol., 204, 45–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Zhang, J. and C. Q. Liu (2004): Major and rare earth elements in rainwaters from Japan and East China Sea: Natural and anthropogenic sources. Chem. Geol., 209, 315–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Zhang, J. and Y. Nozaki (1996): Rare earth elements and yttrium in seawater: ICP-MS determinations in the East Caroline, Coral Sea and South Fiji basins of the western South Pacific Ocean. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 60, 4631–4644.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Zhang, J., H. Amakawa and Y. Nozaki (1994): The comparative behaviors of yttrium and lanthanides in the seawater of the North Pacific. Geophys. Res. Lett., 21, 2677–2680.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Zhuravlev, D. Z., A. A. Tsvetkov, A. Z. Zhuravlev, N. G. Gladkov and I. V. Chernyshev (1987): 143Nd/144Nd and 87Sr/86Sr ratios in recent magmatic rocks of the Kuril island arc. Chem. Geol., 66, 227–243.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Oceanographic Society of Japan/TERRAPUB/Springer 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yayoi Hongo
    • 1
    • 2
  • Hajime Obata
    • 1
  • Dia Sotto Alibo
    • 3
  • Yoshiyuki Nozaki
    • 1
  1. 1.Ocean Research InstituteThe University of TokyoNakano-ku, TokyoJapan
  2. 2.Molecular Characterization Team, Advanced D&S Center, RIKEN (The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research)Hirosawa, Wako, SaitamaJapan
  3. 3.Chemistry DepartmentUniversity of San CarlosCebu CityPhilippines

Personalised recommendations