Journal of Oceanography

, Volume 61, Issue 6, pp 995–1009 | Cite as

Importance of Reference Dataset Improvements for Argo Delayed-Mode Quality Control

Article

Abstract

For the Argo Project, monitoring the global upper ocean by a large number of profiling floats, maintaining the quality of salinity data is critical; the goal for measurement accuracy is ±0.01. Experiments using the method of Wong et al. (2003), the standard delayed-mode quality control (dQC) for the Project, show that its performance depends critically on the reference datasets used. This study concludes that the method is useful for Argo and has sufficient potential to achieve the goal for salinity measurement in the North Pacific, when suitable reference datasets are prepared. Considering the Wong et al. (2003) algorithms, we suggest that reference datasets with the following characteristics will be most suitable for Argo dQC: They should be basically derived from the most extensive datasets, such as the latest World Ocean Database; in regions with denser observations, datasets with carefully quality controls should be used; in the regions with subsurface temperature inversions, such as the subarctic North Pacific, the profiles used for the reference must extend below the deepest temperature maximum to prepare proper salinities for the deep layer reference.

Keywords

Argo project quality control salinity climatological dataset 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Argo Data Management Team (2002): Report of Argo Data Management Meeting. Argo Data Management 3rd Meeting, 18–20 September 2002, Marine Environmental Data Service, Ottawa, Canada.Google Scholar
  2. Argo Science Team (2000): Report of the Argo Science Team 2nd Meeting. The Argo Science Team 2nd Meeting, 7–9 March 2000, Southampton Oceanography Centre, Southampton, U.K.Google Scholar
  3. Argo Science Team (2001): Report of the Argo Science Team 3rd Meeting. The Argo Science Team 3rd Meeting, 20–22 March 2001, Institute of Ocean Science, Sidney, B.C., Canada.Google Scholar
  4. Bacon, S., L. R. Centurioni and W. J. Gould (2001): The evaluation of salinity measurements from PALACE floats. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 18, 1258–1266.Google Scholar
  5. Conkright, M. E., S. Levitus, T. O'Brien, T. P. Boyer, C. Stephens, D. Johnson, O. Baranova, J. Antonov, R. Gelfeld, J. Rochester and C. Forgy (1999): World Ocean Database 1998 CD-ROM dataset documentation version 2.0. National Oceanographic Data Center Internal Report 14, 113 pp., Natl. Oceanic and Atmos. Admin., Silver Spring, Md.Google Scholar
  6. Diggs, S., J. Kappa, D. Kinkade and J. Swift (2002): WOCE Version 3.0. Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego.Google Scholar
  7. Feng, M. and S. Wijffels (2001): Results from a pilot Argo float program in the southeastern Indian Ocean. The Scientific and Technical Workshop of the Data Buoy Cooperation Panel, 22–23 October 2001, Perth, Australia.Google Scholar
  8. Freeland, H. (1997): Calibration of the conductivity cells on PALACE Floats. U.S. WOCE Implementation Report No. 9, U.S. WOCE Office, p. 37–38.Google Scholar
  9. Freitag, H. P., M. E. McCarty, C. Nosse, R. Lukas, M. J. McPhaden and M. F. Cronin (1999): COARE Seacat data: Calibrations and quality control procedures. NOAA Technical Memorandum ERL PMEL-115, 89 pp.Google Scholar
  10. Itoh, M., K. I. Ohshima and M. Wakatsuchi (2003): Distribution and formation of Okhotsk Sea Intermediate Water: An analysis of isopycnal climatological data. J. Geophys. Res., 108(C8), 3258, doi: 10.1029/2002JC001590.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Iwasaka, N., T. Suga, K. Takeuchi, K. Mizuno, Y. Takatsuki, K. Ando, T. Kobayashi, E. Oka, Y. Ichikawa, M. Miyazaki, H. Matsuura, K. Izawa, C. S. Yang, N. Shikama and M. Aoshima (2003): Pre-Japan-ARGO: Experimental observation of upper and middle layers south of the Kuroshio Extension region using profiling floats. J. Oceanogr., 59, 119–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Japan Meteorological Agency (2000): Data report of oceanographic observations, 90, CD-ROM.Google Scholar
  13. Japan Meteorological Agency (2001): Data report of oceanographic observations, 91, CD-ROM.Google Scholar
  14. Japan Meteorological Agency (2002): Data report of oceanographic observations, 92, CD-ROM.Google Scholar
  15. Japan Meteorological Agency (2003): Data report of oceanographic observations, 93, CD-ROM.Google Scholar
  16. Kobayashi, T. (2004): Historical salinity dataset for Argo delayed-mode quality control: Selected Hydrographic Dataset (SeHyD). Report of Japan Marine Science and Technology Center, 49, 51–71 (in Japanese with English abstract).Google Scholar
  17. Kobayashi, T., Y. Ichikawa, Y. Takatsuki, T. Suga, N. Iwasaka, K. Ando, K. Mizuno, N. Shikama and K. Takeuchi (2002a): Quality control of Argo data based on high quality climatological dataset (HydroBase) I. ARGO Technical Report FY2001, Japan Marine Science and Technology Center, p. 36–48.Google Scholar
  18. Kobayashi, T., Y. Ichikawa, Y. Takatsuki, T. Suga, N. Iwasaka, K. Ando, K. Mizuno, N. Shikama and K. Takeuchi (2002b): Correction method for Argo data based on HydroBase I— Introduction of potential conductivity—. ARGO Technical Report FY2001, Japan Marine Science and Technology Center, p. 49–56.Google Scholar
  19. Kobayashi, T., K. Izawa, A. Inoue, N. Shikama, K. Ando, Y. Takatsuki, H. Nakajima, E. Oka, S. Hosoda, M. Miyazaki, N. Iwasaka, T. Suga, K. Mizuno, K. Takeuchi and all members of JAMSTEC/FORSGC Argo Team (2004): Solution Importance of Reference Dataset Improvements for Argo Delayed-Mode Quality Control 1009 of salinity-offset problem occurred in PROVOR type profiling float. Report of Japan Marine Science and Technology Center, 49, 107–120 (in Japanese with English abstract).Google Scholar
  20. Macdonald, A. M., T. Suga and R. G. Curry (2001): An isopycnally averaged North Pacific climatology. J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech., 18, 394–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Meyers, G., H. Phillips, N. Smith and J. Sprintall (1991): Space and time scales for optimal interpolation of temperature— Tropical Pacific Ocean. Prog. Oceanogr., 28, 189–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Mizuno, K. (1995): Basin-scale hydrographic analysis and optimal interpolation method. Oceanography in Japan (Umi no Kenkyu), 4, 187–208 (in Japanese with English abstract).Google Scholar
  23. Oka, E. (2005): Long-term sensor drift found in recovered Argo profiling floats. J. Oceanogr., 61, 775–781.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Oka, E. and K. Ando (2004): Stability of temperature and conductivity sensors of Argo profiling floats. J. Oceanogr., 60, 253–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Oka, E., K. Izawa, A. Inoue, K. Ando, N. Shikama, K. Mizuno, K. Suehiro and K. Takeuchi (2002): Is retrieve of Argo floats possible? Report of Japan Marine Science and Technology Center, 46, 147–155 (in Japanese with English abstract).Google Scholar
  26. Roemmich, D. (1983): Optimal estimation of hydrographic station data and derived fields. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 13, 1544–1549.Google Scholar
  27. Senjyu, T. and H. Sudo (1994): The upper portion of the Japan Sea Proper Water; its source and circulation as deduced from isopycnal analysis. J. Oceanogr., 50, 663–690.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. The Argo Science Team: Roemmich, D., O. Boebel, Y. Desaubies, H. Freeland, K. Kim, B. King, P.-Y. LeTraon, R. Molinari, W. B. Owens, S. Riser, U. Send, K. Takeuchi and S. Wijffels (2001): Argo: the global array of profiling floats. p. 248–258. In Observing the Oceans in the 21st Century, ed. by C. J. Koblinsky and N. R. Smith, Godae Project Office, Bureau of Meteorology, Melbourne, Australia.Google Scholar
  29. Ueno, H. and I. Yasuda (2000): Distribution and formation of the mesothermal structure (temperature maximum) in the North Pacific subarctic region. J. Geophys. Res., 105, 16,885–16,898.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Wong, A. P. S., G. C. Johnson and W. B. Owens (2003): Delayed-mode calibration of autonomous CTD profiling float salinity data by θ-S climatology. J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech., 20, 308–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Oceanographic Society of Japan/TERRAPUB/Springer 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Observational Research for Global ChangeJapan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and TechnologyYokosuka, KanagawaJapan

Personalised recommendations