Journal of Oceanography

, Volume 61, Issue 1, pp 41–57 | Cite as

Numerical Simulations of Sea Surface Cooling by a Mixed Layer Model during the Passage of Typhoon Rex

  • Akiyoshi Wada


In order to investigate the formation mechanism of rapid decrease of maritime sea surface temperature (SST) observed by R/V Keifu Maru, the ocean response to Typhoon Rex is simulated using a mixed layer model. The rapid decrease of the maritime SST is successfully simulated with realistic atmospheric forcing and an entrainment scheme of which sources of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) are production due to wind stress, generation during free convection, and production due to current shear. The rapid decrease at the observed station by R/V Keifu Maru is not produced by instant atmospheric forcing but is mainly produced by entrainment on the right side of the running typhoon as a part of cooling area during its passage, and remained during a few days. The sea surface cooling (SSC) is evident along the track and on the right side of the running typhoon, which is similar to the SSC of satellite observation by TRMM/TMI. The conspicuous SSC produced by both entrainment and upwelling is situated just under the track of typhoon when the typhoon moves slower. Intercomparison of entrainment schemes of the mixed layer model is implemented. Frictional velocity and buoyancy effects are effective for a gradual SSC covering the wide region. In contrast, the effect of current shear at the mixed layer base is related to the amount of SSC and the sharp horizontal gradient of SSC. The entrainment scheme including all three TKE sources has the best performance for SSC simulation.


Mixed layer model typhoon sea surface cooling entrainment scheme upwelling atmospheric forcing 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Akiyoshi Wada
    • 1
  1. 1.Meteorological Research InstituteJapan Meteorological AgencyTsukuba, IbarakiJapan

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