Effects of Direct Ocean CO2 Injection on Deep-Sea Meiofauna
- 547 Downloads
Purposeful deep-sea carbon dioxide sequestration by direct injection of liquid CO2 into the deep waters of the ocean has the potential to mitigate the rapid rise in atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases. One issue of concern for this carbon sequestration option is the impact of changes in seawater chemistry caused by CO2 injection on deep-sea ecosystems. The effects of deep-sea carbon dioxide injection on infaunal deep-sea organisms were evaluated during a field experiment in 3600 m depth off California, in which liquid CO2 was released on the seafloor. Exposure to the dissolution plume emanating from the liquid CO2 resulted in high rates of mortality for flagellates, amoebae, and nematodes inhabiting sediments in close proximity to sites of CO2 release. Results from this study indicate that large changes in seawater chemistry (i.e. pH reductions of ∼0.5–1.0 pH units) near CO2 release sites will cause high mortality rates for nearby infaunal deep-sea communities.
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Barnola, J.-M., D. Raynaud, C. Lorius and N. I. Barkov (2003): Historical CO 2 record from the Vostok ice core. In Trends: A Compendium of Data on Global Change, Carbon Diox-ide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Labo-ratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, Tenn., U.S.A.Google Scholar
- Caldeira, K. and M. E. Wickett (2002): Comparing pH impacts of oceanic CO 2 injection and atmospheric CO 2 release. Eos Trans. AGU, 83(1), Spring Meet. Suppl., Abstract OS51F-01.Google Scholar
- Hochachka, P. W. and G. N. Somero (2002): Biochemical Ad-aptation: Mechanism and Process in Physiological Evolu-tion. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 466 pp.Google Scholar
- Houghton, J. T., G. J. Jenkins and J. J. Ephraums (1990): Sci-entific Assessment of Climate Change--Report of Working Group I. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cam-bridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K., 365 pp.Google Scholar
- Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2001): In Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis, ed. by J. T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, M. Noguer, P. J. van der Linden and D. Xiaosu, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K., 944 pp.Google Scholar
- Keeling, C. D. and T. P. Whorf (2002): Atmospheric CO 2 records from sites in the SIO air sampling network. In Trends: A Compendium of Data on Global Change, Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Labora-tory, U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, Tenn., U.S.A.Google Scholar
- Marland, G., T. A. Boden and R. J. Andres (2001): Global, Re-gional, and National CO 2 Emissions. In Trends: A Compen-dium of Data on Global Change, Carbon Dioxide Informa-tion Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy (http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/trends/trends.htm).Google Scholar
- Pörtner, H.-O. and A. Reipschläger (1996): Ocean disposal of anthropogenic CO 2: physiological effects on tolerant and intolerant animals. p.57–81. In Ocean Storage of CO 2 . En-vironmental, Workshop 2: Environmental Impact, ed. by B. Ormerod and M. Angel, IEA Green house and Gas R & D Programme, Southampton Oceanography Centre, U.K.Google Scholar
- Reichle, D., J. Houghton, S. Benson, J. Clarke, F. R. Dahlman, G. Hendrey, H. Herzog, J. Hunter-Cevera, G. Jacobs, R. Judkins, B. Kane, J. Ekmann, J. Ogden, A. Palmisano, R. Socolow, J. Stringer, T. Surles, A. Wolsky, N. Woodward and M. York (1999): Carbon Sequestration: Research and Development. Office of Science, Office of Fossil Energy, U.S. Dept. of Energy, 259 pp.Google Scholar
- Sabine, C. L., R. A. Feely, R. M. Key, J. L. Bullister, F. J. Millero, K. Lee, T.-H. Peng, B. Tilbrook, T. Ono and C. S. Wong (2002): Distribution of anthropogenic CO 2 in the Pacific Ocean. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 16,1083–1099.Google Scholar
- Zar, J. H. (1999): Biostatistical Analysis. 4th ed., Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 929 pp.Google Scholar