Eldercare and Childcare: How Does Caregiving Responsibility Affect Job Discrimination?
- 216 Downloads
Despite rising legal claims, little research has examined discrimination against job applicants or employees because of their family caregiving responsibilities. Across three studies, we examine discrimination in hiring and starting salary decisions among equally qualified job applicants based on their elder, child, or sandwiched caregiving responsibilities. In study 1, primary caregiving parents were less likely to be hired, were offered lower salaries, and were rated as less competent, committed, available, and agentic, compared to non-primary caregiving parents. In study 2, primary child and elder caregivers were less likely to be hired and received lower salaries, and they were evaluated more negatively on job-related factors than non-caregivers, especially if they were female. In study 3, primary sandwiched caregivers (i.e., those responsible for both elder and child care) were less likely to be hired and were given lower salaries than primary child caregivers in a male-dominated job. Sandwiched caregivers were evaluated more negatively than other caregivers in both female- and male-dominated jobs.
KeywordsFamily responsibility discrimination Employment discrimination Work-family Eldercare Childcare Sandwich generation Gender Hiring
This research was supported by the Mountains and Plains Education and Research Center, Grant T42OH009229, funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention or the Department of Health and Human Services.
- Allen, T. D., & Russell, J. E. A. (1999). Parental leave of absence: Some not so family-friendly implications. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 29, 166–191. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.1999.tb01380.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Bell v. Prefix, Inc., 784 F.2d 778 (6th Cir., 2009).Google Scholar
- Berger, J., Fisek, H., Norman, R., & Zelditch, M. (1977). Status characteristics and social interaction. New York, NY: Elsevier.Google Scholar
- Calvert, C. T. (2016). Caregivers in the workplace: Family responsibilities discrimination litigation update 2016. San Francisco: The Center for WorkLife Law.Google Scholar
- Center for WorkLife Law. (2014). WorkLife Law’s state FRD legislation tracker. San Francisco: Center for WorkLife Law.Google Scholar
- Chapman, N. J., Ingersoll-Dayton, B., & Neal, M. B. (1994). Balancing the multiple roles of work and caregiving for children, adults, and elders. In G. P. Keita & J. J. Hurrel Jr. (Eds.), Job stress in a changing workforce (pp. 283–300). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/10165-018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- DePasquale, N., Davis, K. D., Zarit, S. H., Moen, P., Hanner, L. B., & Almeida, D. M. (2016). Combining formal and informal caregiving roles: The psychosocial implications of double- and triple-duty care. Journals of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 71, 201–211. https://doi.org/10.1093/geronb/gbu139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Eagly, A. H. (1987). Sex differences in social behavior: A social role interpretation. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Fallon, N. (2016). How ‘personal’ should you get in a job interview? In Business news dailyRetrieved from http://www.businessnewsdaily.com/9109-personal-job-interview.html.Google Scholar
- Feintzeig, R. (2016). Why bosses are turning to ‘blind hiring’. Wall Street Journal, p. B4.Google Scholar
- Fernandez, J. P. (1990). The politics and reality of family care in corporate America. Lexington, MA: D. C. Heath.Google Scholar
- Halinski, M., Duxbury, L., & Higgins, C. (2018). Working while caring for mom, dad, and junior too: Exploring the impact of employees’ caregiving situation on demands, control, and perceived stress. Journal of Family Issues, 39, 3248–3275. https://doi.org/10.1177/0192513X18777839.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Heilman, M. E. (1983). Sex bias in work settings: The lack of fit model. Research in Organizational Behavior, 269–298.Google Scholar
- Knussman V. Maryland, 272 F.3d 625 (4th Cir., 2001).Google Scholar
- Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (1998–2017). Mplus user's guide. Los Angeles, CA: Muthén and Muthén.Google Scholar
- Olian, J. D., Schwab, D. P., & Haberfeld, Y. (1988). The impact of applicant gender compared to qualifications on hiring recommendations: A meta-analysis of experimental studies. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 41, 180–195. https://doi.org/10.1016/0749-5978(88)90025-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Paolacci, G., Chandler, J., & Ipeirotis, P. G. (2010). Running experiments on amazon mechanical turk. Judgement and Decision Making, 5, 411–419.Google Scholar
- Parker, K., & Livingston, G. (2016). 6 facts about American fathers. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2016/06/16/fathers-day-facts/.Google Scholar
- Preacher, K. J., & Selig, J. P. (2010). Monte Carlo method for assessing multilevel mediation: An interactive tool for creating confidence intervals for indirect effects in 1–1-1 multilevel models [Computer software]. Available from http://quantpsy.org/.
- Rogers, R. (n.d.). Should you bring up your kids in an interview? In The museRetrieved from https://www.themuse.com/advice/should-you-bring-up-your-kids-in-an-interview. Accessed August 10, 2018.
- Smith, J. (2016). 21 job-interview questions that are designed to trick you. Business. Insider. Retrieved from http://www.businessinsider.com/job-interview-questions-that-will-trick-you-2016-9
- Stroh, L. K., & Brett, J. M. (1996). The dual-earner dad penalty in salary progression. Human Resource Management, 35, 181–201. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-050X(199622)35:2<181::AID-HRM3>3.0.CO;2-U.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sullivan, O. (2016). Division of labor, domestic. In N. A. Naples (Ed.), The Wiley Blackwell encyclopedia of gender and sexuality studies (pp. 1–2). Hoboken: John Wiley.Google Scholar
- Tharenou, P. (1999). Is there a link between family structures and women's and men's managerial career advancement? Journal of Organizational Behavior, 20, 837–863. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-1379(199911)20:6<837::AID-JOB978>3.0.CO;2-W.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- United Nations (2015). Life expectancy at birth, total (years). Retrieved from http://data.un.org/Data.aspx?d=WDI&f=Indicator_Code%3ASP.DYN.LE00.IN
- U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2017a). Unpaid eldercare in the United States: 2015–16 summary. Retrieved from https://www.bls.gov/news.release/elcare.nr0.htm
- U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2017b). National occupational employment and wage estimates, United States. Retrieved from https://www.bls.gov/bls/blswage.htm
- U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2018). Employment characteristics of families summary. Retrieved from https://www.bls.gov/news.release/famee.nr0.htm
- United States Department of Labor. (2016). Navigating the demands of work and eldercare. Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
- Williams, J. (2001). Unbending gender: Why work and family conflict and what to do about it. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Williams, J. C., & Bornstein, S. (2008). The evolution of “FReD”: Family responsibilities discrimination and developments in the law of stereotyping and implicit bias. Hastings Law Journal, 59, 1311–1358.Google Scholar
- Williams, J. C., Devaux, R., Petrac, P. & Feinberg, L. (2012). Protecting family caregivers from employment discrimination. AARP public policy institution, Insight on the Issues 68.Google Scholar
- Williams, J., & Segal, N. (2003). Beyond the maternal wall: Relief for family caregivers who are discriminated against on the job. Harvard Women’s Law Journal, 26, 1–206.Google Scholar
- Yang, N. (2005). Individualism-collectivism and work-family interfaces: A Sino-US comparison. In S. A. Y. Poelmans (Ed.), Work and family: An international research perspective (pp. 287–318). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.Google Scholar