Advertisement

Journal of Business and Psychology

, Volume 35, Issue 1, pp 29–43 | Cite as

Finding the Nuance in Eldercare Measurement: Latent Profiles of Eldercare Characteristics

  • Reed J. BrambleEmail author
  • Emma K. Duerk
  • Boris B. Baltes
Original Paper

Abstract

There has historically been little consensus around the measurement of the eldercare construct. While authors most frequently employ a dichotomous operationalization of eldercare, there is likely greater nuance to the caregiver experience that goes uncaptured and can serve to explain inconsistencies in eldercare findings. The current study takes a person-centered approach to eldercare in order to assess how different caregiving characteristics manifest within individuals. Using an archival data source, we conduct a latent profile analysis of 840 employed caregivers to detect patterns within eldercare experiences and relate these contexts to various work-related and psychological outcomes. Overall, we find that the latent profiles are primarily driven by three eldercare variables: (1) the amount of time spent attending to eldercare responsibilities, (2) the living situation of the care recipient, and (3) the impairment of the care recipient. We also discovered that one of the profiles (characterized by long-term, in-home eldercare for a care recipient with a physical or mental disability) exhibited significantly higher family-to-work conflict relative to other profiles. Our comparisons of eldercare profiles serve to illustrate the scenarios in which eldercare is most influential. Additionally, the person-centered approach revealed various caregiving contexts that were otherwise not captured by the variable-centered approach, supporting the use of latent profile analysis in the work-family domain. The findings have implications for the future operationalization of the eldercare construct, as well as for organizational eldercare policies and interventions.

Keywords

Eldercare Work-family Well-being Latent profile analysis 

Notes

References

  1. Adams, G. A., King, L. A., & King, D. W. (1996). Relationships of job and family involvement, family social support, and work–family conflict with job and life satisfaction. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81, 411–420.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.81.4.411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Airey, L., McKie, L., & Backett-Milburn, K. (2007). Women’s experiences of combining eldercare and paid work in the Scottish food retail sector. Health Sociology Review, 16(3-4), 292–303.  https://doi.org/10.5172/hesr.2007.16.3-4.292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Allen, T. D., & Shockley, K. M. (2012). Older workers and work-family issues. In J. W. Hedge & W. C. Borman (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of work and aging (pp. 520–537). Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Aneshensel, C. S., Pearlin, L. I., Mullan, J. T., Zarit, S. H., & Whitlatch, C. J. (1995). Profiles in caregiving: The unexpected career. Academic Press.Google Scholar
  5. Asparouhov, T., & Muthén, B. (2014). Auxiliary variables in mixture modeling: Three-step approaches using M plus. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 21(3), 329–341.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10705511.2014.915181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barling, J., MacEwen, K. E., Kelloway, E. K., & Higginbottom, S. F. (1994). Predictors and outcomes of elder-care-based interrole conflict. Psychology and Aging, 9(3), 391–397.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0882-7974.9.3.391.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Barrah, J. L., Schultz, K. S., Baltes, B., & Stolz, H. E. (2004). Men’s and women’s eldercare-based work-family conflict: Antecedents and work-related outcomes. Fathering, 2(3), 305–322.  https://doi.org/10.3149/fth.0203.305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bauer, D. J., & Curran, P. J. (2004). The integration of continuous and discrete latent variable models: Potential problems and promising opportunities. Psychological Methods, 9(1), 3–29.  https://doi.org/10.1037/1082-989X.9.1.3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bennett, A. A., Gabriel, A. S., Calderwood, C., Dahling, J. J., & Trougakos, J. P. (2016). Better together? Examining profiles of employee recovery experiences. Journal of Applied Psychology, 101(12), 1635–1654.  https://doi.org/10.1037/apl0000157.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bond, J. T., Thompson, C., Galinsky, E., & Prottas, D. (2003). The 2002 national study of the changing workforce. New York: Families and Work Institute.Google Scholar
  11. Bramble, R. J., Duerk, E. K., & Baltes, B. B. (2018). Age and work–family issues. In K. S. Shultz & G. A. Adams (Eds.), Aging and work in the 21st century (2nd ed., pp. 255-272). Routledge.Google Scholar
  12. Buffardi, L. C., Smith, J. L., O'Brien, A. S., & Erdwins, C. J. (1999). The impact of dependent-care responsibility and gender on work attitudes. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 4(4), 356–367.  https://doi.org/10.1037/1076-8998.4.4.356.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Calvano, L. (2013). Tug of war: Caring for our elders while remaining productive at work. Academy of Management Perspectives, 27, 204–218.  https://doi.org/10.5465/amp.2012.0095.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chappell, N. L., & Reid, R. C. (2002). Burden and well-being among caregivers: Examining the distinction. The Gerontologist, 42, 772–780.  https://doi.org/10.1093/geront/42.6.772.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Cohn, D., & Caumont, A. (2016). 10 demographics trends that are shaping the U.S. and the world. Pew Research Center. Obtained from: http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2016/03/31/10-demographic-trends-that-are-shaping-the-u-s-and-the-world/
  16. Cravey, T., & Mitra, A. (2011). Demographics of the sandwich generation by race and ethnicity in the United States. The Journal of Socio-Economics, 40(3), 306–311.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socec.2010.12.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dembe, A. E., Dugan, E., Mutschler, P., & Piktialis, D. (2012). Employer perceptions of elder care assistance programs. Journal of Workplace Behavioral Health, 23, 359–379.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15555240802540012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dugan, A. G., Fortinsky, R. H., Barnes-Farrell, J. L., Kenny, A. M., Robison, J. T., Warren, N., & Cherniack, M. G. (2016). Associations of eldercare and competing demands with health and work outcomes among manufacturing workers. Community, Work, & Family, 19(5), 569–587.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13668803.2016.1150809.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dura, J. R., Stukenberg, K. W., & Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K. (1991). Anxiety and depressive disorders in adult children caring for demented parents. Psychology and Aging, 6(3), 467–473.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0882-7974.6.3.467.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Duxbury, L., & Dole, G. (2015). Squeezed in the middle: Balancing paid employment, childcare and eldercare. In R. J. Burke, K. M. Page, C. L. Cooper, R. J. Burke, K. M. Page, & C. L. Cooper (Eds.), Flourishing in life, work and careers: Individual wellbeing and career experiences (pp. 141–166). Northampton, MA, US: Edward Elgar Publishing.  https://doi.org/10.4337/9781783474103.00017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Earle, A., & Heymann, J. (2011). Protecting the health of employees caring for family members with special health care needs. Social Science & Medicine, 73(1), 68–78.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2011.05.016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Edwards, J. R., & Rothbard, N. P. (2000). Mechanisms linking work and family: Clarifying the relationship between work and family constructs. Academy of Management Review, 25(1), 178–199.  https://doi.org/10.2307/259269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Foti, R. J., Bray, B. C., Thompson, N. J., & Allgood, S. F. (2012). Know thy self, know thy leader: Contributions of a pattern-oriented approach to examining leader perceptions. The Leadership Quarterly, 23(4), 702–717.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2012.03.007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Friedman, D. E., & Galinsky, E. (1992). Work and family issues: A legitimate business concern. In S. Zedeck & S. Zedeck (Eds.), Work, families, and organizations (pp. 168–207). San Francisco, CA, US: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  25. Gabriel, A. S., Daniels, M. A., Diefendorff, J. M., & Greguras, G. J. (2015). Emotional labor actors: A latent profile analysis of emotional labor strategies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 100(3), 863–879.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0037408.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. George, L. K., & Gwyther, L. P. (1986). Caregiver well-being: A multidimensional examination of family caregivers of demented adults. The Gerontologist, 26(3), 253–259.  https://doi.org/10.1093/geront/26.3.253.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Gordon, J. R., Pruchno, R. A., Wilson-Genderson, M., Murphy, W. M., & Rose, M. (2012). Balancing caregiving and work: Role conflict and role strain dynamics. Journal of Family Issues, 33, 662–689.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0192513X11425322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gottlieb, B. H., Kelloway, E. K., & Fraboni, M. (1994). Aspects of eldercare that place employees at risk. The Gerontologist, 34(6), 815–821.  https://doi.org/10.1093/geront/34.6.815.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Grandey, A. A., Cordeiro, B. L., & Crouter, A. C. (2005). A longitudinal and multi-source test of the work-family conflict and job satisfaction relationship. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 78, 305–323.  https://doi.org/10.1348/096317905X26769.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Grzywacz, J. G., & Marks, N. F. (2000). Reconceptualizing the work–family interface: An ecological perspective on the correlates of positive and negative spillover between work and family. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 5(1), 111–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hammer, L. B., Neal, M. B., Newsom, J. T., Brockwood, K. J., & Colton, C. L. (2005). A longitudinal study of the effects of dual-earner couples' utilization of family-friendly workplace supports on work and family outcomes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(4), 799–810.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.90.4.799.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Harlton, S. V., Keating, N., & Fast, J. (1998). Defining eldercare for policy and practice: Perspectives matter. Family Relations, 47, 281–288.  https://doi.org/10.2307/584978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Harrington, L., & Heidkamp, M. (2013). The aging workforce: Challenges for the health care industry workforce. The NTAR Leadership Center.Google Scholar
  34. Hepburn, C. G., & Barling, J. (1996). Eldercare responsibilities, interrole conflict, and employee absence: A daily study. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 1(3), 311–318.  https://doi.org/10.1037//1076-8998.1.3.311.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Hirschi, A. (2011). Callings in career: A typological approach to essential and optional components. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 79(1), 60–73.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2010.11.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hobfoll, S. E. (1989). Conservation of resources: A new attempt at conceptualizing stress. American Psychologist, 44(3), 513–524.  https://doi.org/10.1037//0003-066X.44.3.513.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Hobfoll, S. E. (2002). Social and psychological resources and adaptation. Review of General Psychology, 6(4), 307–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Judge, T. A., Thoresen, C. J., Bono, J. E., & Patton, G. K. (2001). The job satisfaction–job performance relationship: A qualitative and quantitative review. Psychological Bulletin, 127, 376–407.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.127.3.376.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Kahn, R. L., Wolfe, D. M., Quinn, R. P., Snoek, J. D., & Rosenthal, R. A. (1964). Organizational stress: Studies in role conflict and ambiguity. Oxford, England: Wiley.Google Scholar
  40. Kam, C., Morin, A. J., Meyer, J. P., & Topolnytsky, L. (2016). Are commitment profiles stable and predictable? A latent transition analysis. Journal of Management, 42(6), 1462–1490.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206313503010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kim, J., Ingersoll-Dayton, B., & Kwak, M. (2013). Balancing eldercare and employment: The role of work interruptions and supportive employers. Journal of Applied Gerontology, 32(3), 347–369.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0733464811423647.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Kossek, E. E., Colquitt, J. A., & Noe, R. A. (2001). Caregiving decisions, well-being, and performance: The effects of place and provider as a function of dependent type and work-family climates. Academy of Management Journal, 44(1), 29–44.  https://doi.org/10.2307/3069335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kossek, E. E., Hammer, L. B., Kelly, E. L., & Moen, P. (2014). Designing work, family & health organizational change initiatives. Organizational Dynamics, 43, 53–63.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.orgdyn.2013.10.007.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Lanza, S. T., Tan, X., & Bray, B. C. (2013). Latent class analysis with distal outcomes: A flexible model-based approach. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 20(1), 1–26.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10705511.2013.742377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Lawrence, B. S., & Zyphur, M. J. (2011). Identifying organizational faultlines with latent class cluster analysis. Organizational Research Methods, 14(1), 32–57.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1094428110376838.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lee, J. A., Foos, P. W., & Clow, C. L. (2010). Caring for one’s elders and family-to-work conflict. The Psychologist-Manager Journal, 13(1), 15–39.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10887150903540185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Marks, N. F. (1998). Does it hurt to care? Caregiving, work-family conflict, and midlife well-being. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 60, 951–966.  https://doi.org/10.2307/353637.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Marks, S. R. (1977). Multiple roles and role strain: Some notes on human energy, time and commitment. American Sociological Review, 42(6), 921–936.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Martin, J. E., & Sinclair, R. R. (2007). A typology of the part-time workforce: Differences on job attitudes and turnover. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 80(2), 301–319.  https://doi.org/10.1348/096317906X113833.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. McGarrigle, C. A., Cronin, H., & Kenny, R. A. (2014). The impact of being the intermediate caring generation and intergenerational transfers on self-reported health of women in Ireland. International Journal of Public Health, 59, 301–308.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00038-013-0521-y.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Morin, A. J., Morizot, J., Boudrias, J. S., & Madore, I. (2011). A multifoci person-centered perspective on workplace affective commitment: A latent profile/factor mixture analysis. Organizational Research Methods, 14(1), 58–90.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1094428109356476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (1998-2018). Mplus user’s guide. Los Angeles, CA: Author.Google Scholar
  53. Neal, M. B., & Hammer, L. B. (2007). Working couples caring for children and aging parents: Effects on work and well-being. Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  54. Nichols, L. S., & Junk, V. W. (1997). The sandwich generation: Dependency, proximity, and task assistance needs of parents. Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 18(3), 299–326.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1024978930126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Nielsen, M. B., Skogstad, A., Matthiesen, S. B., Glasø, L., Aasland, M. S., Notelaers, G., & Einarsen, S. (2009). Prevalence of workplace bullying in Norway: Comparisons across time and estimation methods. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 18(1), 81–101.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13594320801969707.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Nylund, K. L., Asparouhov, T., & Muthén, B. O. (2007). Deciding on the number of classes in latent class analysis and growth mixture modeling: A Monte Carlo simulation study. Structural Equation Modeling, 14(4), 535–569.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10705510701575396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Pavalko, E. K., & Gong, F. (2005). Work and family issues for midlife women. In S. M. Bianchi, L. M. Casper, B. R. King, S. M. Bianchi, L. M. Casper, & B. R. King (Eds.), Work, family, health, and well-being (pp. 379–393). Mahwah, NJ, US: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.Google Scholar
  58. Pinquart, M., & Sörensen, S. (2003). Differences between caregivers and noncaregivers in psychological health and physical health: A meta-analysis. Psychology and Aging, 18(2), 250–267.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0882-7974.18.2.250.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Rice, D. P., & Fineman, N. (2004). Economic implications of increased longevity in the United States. Annual Review of Public Health, 25, 457–473.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.publhealth.25.101802.123054.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Robinson, M. M., Barbee, A. P., Martin, M., Singer, T. L., & Yegidis, B. (2003). The organizational costs of caregiving: A call to action. Administration in Social Work, 27(1), 83–102.  https://doi.org/10.1300/J147v27n01_06.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Rothausen, T. J. (2015). Organizational dependent care support. In T. D. Allen & L. T. Eby (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of work and family (pp. 271-288). Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  62. Ryff, C. D. (1989). Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations on the meaning of psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 1069–1081.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.57.6.1069.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Shoptaugh, C. F., Phelps, J. A., & Visio, M. E. (2004). Employee eldercare responsibilities: Should organizations care? Journal of Business and Psychology, 19, 179–196.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10869-004-0547-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Sinha, M. (2013). Spotlight on Canadians: Results from the General Social Survey: Portrait of caregivers. Statistics Canada.Google Scholar
  65. Spillman, B. C., & Pezzin, L. E. (2000). Potential and active family caregivers: Changing networks and the ‘sandwich generation. The Milbank Quarterly, 78(3), 347–374.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-0009.00177.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. Stueve, A., & O'Donnell, L. (1989). Interactions between women and their elderly parents: Constraints of daughters’ employment. Research on Aging, 11(3), 331–353.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0164027589113004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Sweet, S., Pitt-Catsouphes, M., Besen, E., Hovhannisyan, S., & Pasha, F. (2010). Talent pressures and the aging workforce: Responsive action steps for the healthcare & social assistance sector. Center on Aging & Work/Workplace Flexibility.Google Scholar
  68. Tennstedt, S. L., & Gonyea, J. G. (1994). An agenda for work and eldercare research: Methodological challenges and future directions. Research on Aging, 16(1), 85–108.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0164027594161006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Tofighi, D., & Enders, C. K. (2008). Identifying the correct number of classes in growth mixture models. In G. R. Hancock & K. M. Samuelson (Eds.), Advances in latent variable mixture models (pp. 317–342). Information Age Publishing.Google Scholar
  70. Trukeschitz, B., Schneider, U., Mühlmann, R., & Ponocny, I. (2012). Informal eldercare and work-related strain. Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 68(2), 257–267.  https://doi.org/10.1093/geronb/gbs101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Vitaliano, P. P., Zhang, J., & Scanlan, J. M. (2003). Is caregiving hazardous to one’s physical health? A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 129, 946–972.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.129.6.946.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Wang, M., & Hanges, P. J. (2011). Latent class procedures: Applications to organizational research. Organizational Research Methods, 14(1), 24–31.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1094428110383988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Wang, M., Sinclair, R. R., Zhou, L., & Sears, L. E. (2013). Person-centered analysis: Methods, applications, and implications for occupational health psychology. In R. R. Sinclair, M. Wang, L. E. Tetrick, R. R. Sinclair, M. Wang, & L. E. Tetrick (Eds.), Research methods in occupational health psychology: Measurement, design, and data analysis (pp. 349–373). New York, NY, US: Routledge: Taylor & Francis Group.Google Scholar
  74. Woo, S. E. (2011). A study of Ghiselli’s hobo syndrome. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 79(2), 461–469.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2011.02.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Woo, S. E., Jebb, A. T., Tay, L., & Parrigon, S. (2018). Putting the “person” in the center: Review and synthesis of person-centered approaches and methods in organizational science. Organizational Research Methods, 21, 1–32.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1094428117752467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Zacher, H., Jimmieson, N. L., & Winter, G. (2012). Eldercare demands, mental health, and work performance: The moderating role of satisfaction with eldercare tasks. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 17(1), 52–64.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0025154.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Zacher, H., & Schulz, H. (2015). Employees’ eldercare demands, strain, and perceived support. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 30(2), 183–198.  https://doi.org/10.1108/JMP-06-2013-0157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Zacher, H., & Winter, G. (2011). Eldercare demands, strain, and work engagement: The moderating role of perceived organizational support. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 79(3), 667–680.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2011.03.020.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Wayne State UniversityDetroitUSA

Personalised recommendations