Advertisement

Stigma Expression Outcomes and Boundary Conditions: A Meta-Analysis

  • Isaac E. SabatEmail author
  • Alex P. Lindsey
  • Eden B. King
  • Carolyn Winslow
  • Kristen P. Jones
  • Ashley Membere
  • Nicholas A. Smith
Original Paper
  • 48 Downloads

Abstract

The decision to express a stigmatized identity inside and outside of the workplace is highly complex, with the potential for both negative and positive outcomes. This meta-analysis examines the intrapersonal and interpersonal workplace and non-workplace outcomes of engaging in this identity management strategy. Synthesizing stigma and relationship formation theories, we hypothesize and test boundary conditions for these relationships including the visibility and controllability of the stigma, the study setting, and the gender of the interaction partner. Through our analysis of 65 unique samples (k = 108), we find that expression is more likely to lead to beneficial outcomes in interpersonal, workplace, and non-workplace domains, but only for less-visible stigmas and for studies conducted within a field vs. lab setting. Finally, we explore stigma expression across specific stigmatized identities and determine that there are consistently positive outcomes of expression for individuals with stigmatized religious and sexual orientation identities.

Keywords

Stigma Expression Disclosure Identity management Meta-analysis 

Notes

Supplementary material

10869_2018_9608_MOESM1_ESM.docx (396 kb)
Supplementary Table 3 (DOCX 395 kb)

References

References marked with an asterisk indicate studies included in the meta-analysis

  1. Aguinis, H., Sturman, M. C., & Pierce, C. A. (2007). Comparison of three meta-analytic procedures for estimating moderating effects of categorical variables. Organizational Research Methods, 11, 9–34.  https://doi.org/10.1002/sim.1186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. *Ahmad, A. S., Lindsey, A. P., King, E. B., Sabat, I. E., Anderson, A. J., Trump, R., Keeler, K. R. (Unpublished). Interpersonal implications of religious identity management in the workplace. Journal of Applied Psychology.Google Scholar
  3. Badgett, M. V., Lau, H., Sears, B., & Ho, D. (2007). Bias in the workplace: consistent evidence of sexual orientation and gender identity discrimination. Google Scholar
  4. *Balsam, K. F., & Mohr, J. J. (2007). Adaptation to sexual orientation stigma: a comparison of bisexual and lesbian/gay adults. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 54, 306–319.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0167.54.3.306.
  5. *Barron, L. G., Hebl, M., & King, E. B. (2011). Effects of manifest ethnic identification on employment discrimination. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 17, 23–30.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0021439.
  6. *Beaber, T. (2008). Well-being among bisexual females: the roles of internalized biphobia, stigma consciousness, social support, and self-disclosure (unpublished doctoral dissertation). Alliant International University, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  7. *Beals, K. P., Peplau, L. A., & Gable, S. L. (2009). Stigma management and well-being: The role of perceived social support, emotional processing, and suppression. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 35, 867–879.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167209334783.
  8. Berdahl, J. L., & Moore, C. (2006). Workplace harassment: double jeopardy for minority women. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91, 426–436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. *Berger, B. E., Ferrans, C. E., & Lashley, F. R. (2001). Measuring stigma in people with HIV: psychometric assessment of the HIV stigma scale. Research in Nursing & Health, 24, 518–529.  https://doi.org/10.1002/nur.10011.
  10. *Bos, A. E. R., Kanner, D., Muris, P., Janssen, B., & Mayer, B. (2009). Mental illness stigma and disclosure: consequences of coming out of the closet. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 30, 509–513. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/01612840802601382.
  11. Brewer, M. B. (2007). The social psychology of intergroup relations: social categorization, ingroup bias, and outgroup prejudice. In A. W. Kruglanski & E. T. Higgins (Eds.), Social psychology: handbook of basic principles (2nd ed., pp. 695–715). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  12. Buck, D. M., & Plant, E. A. (2011). Interorientation interactions and impressions: does the timing of disclosure of sexual orientation matter? Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 47, 333–342.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2010.10.016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Button, S. B. (2001). Organizational effectors to affirm sexual diversity: a cross-level examination. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 17–28.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.86.1.17.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Button, S. B. (2004). Identity management strategies utilized by lesbian and gay employees. Groups & Organization Management, 29, 470–494.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1059601103257417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. *Calin, T., Green, J., Hetherton, J., & Brook, G. (2007). Disclosure of HIV among black African men and women attending a London HIV clinic. AIDS Care, 19, 385–391.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09540120600971224.
  16. Charmaz, K. (1991). Good days, bad days: the self in chronic illness and time. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Clair, J. A., Beatty, J., & MacLean, T. (2005). Out of sight but not out of mind: managing invisible social identities in the workplace. Academy of Management Review, 30, 78–95.  https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.2005.15281431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Collins, N. L., & Miller, L. C. (1994). Self-disclosure and liking: a meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 116, 457–475.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.116.3.457.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Corrigan, P., & Matthews, A. (2003). Stigma and disclosure: Implications for coming out of the closet. Journal of Mental Health, 12(3), 235–248.Google Scholar
  20. *Comer, L. K., Henker, B., Kemeny, M., & Wyatt, G. (2000). Illness disclosure and mental health among women with HIV/AIDS. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 10, 449–464.  https://doi.org/10.1002/1099-1298(200011/12)10:6<449::AID-CASP577>3.0.CO;2-N.
  21. Crocker, J., Major, B., & Steele, C. (1998). Social stigma. In D. Gilbert, S. T. Fiske, & G. Lindzey (Eds.), The handbook of social psychology (Vol. 2, 4th ed., pp. 504–553). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  22. Cuddy, A. J. C., Glick, P., & Beninger, A. (2011). The dynamics of warmth and competence judgments, and their outcomes in organizations. Research in Organizational Behavior, 31, 73–98.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.riob.2011.10.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. *Dalgin, R. S., & Bellini, J. (2008). Invisible disability disclosure in an employment interview: impact on employers’ hiring decisions and views of employability. Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 52, 6–15.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0034355207311311.
  24. Day, N. E., & Schoenrade, P. (1997). Staying in the closet versus coming out: relationships between communication about sexual orientation and work attitudes. Personnel Psychology, 50, 147–163.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1997.tb00904.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Day, N. E., & Schoenrade, P. (2000). The relationship among reported disclosure of sexual orientation, anti-discrimination policies, top management support and work attitudes of gay and lesbian employees. Personnel Review, 29(3), 346–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Derlega, V. J., Metts, S., Petronio, S., & Margulis, S. T. (1993). Sage series on close relationships. Selfdisclosure. Thousand Oaks, CA, US.Google Scholar
  27. *Dima, A. L., Stutterheim, S. E., Lyimo, R., & de Bruin, M. (2014). Advancing methodology in the study of HIV status disclosure: the importance of considering disclosure target and intent. Social Science & Medicine, 108, 166–174.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2014.02.045.
  28. Dindia, K., & Allen, M. (1992). Sex differences in self-disclosure: a meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 106–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dindia, K., Allen, M., Preiss, R., Gayle, B., & Burrell, N. (2002). Self-disclosure research: knowledge through meta-analysis. Interpersonal communication research: Advances through meta-analysis, 169–185.Google Scholar
  30. *Driscoll, J. M., Kelley, F. A., & Fassinger, R. E. (1996). Lesbian identity and disclosure in the workplace: Relation to occupational stress and satisfaction. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 48, 229–242.  https://doi.org/10.1006/jvbe.1996.0020.
  31. Durlak, P. R. (2017). Disability at work: understanding the impact of the ADA on the workplace. Sociology Compass, 11, e12475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. EEOC (2003). Muslim/Arab employment discrimination. Charges since 9/11. Available at: http://www.eeoc.gov/origin/z-stats.html
  33. EEOC (2011). Charge statistics FY 1997 through FY 2010. Available at: http://www.eeoc.gov/eeoc/statistics/enforcement/charges.cfm
  34. Egger, M., Smith, G. D., Schneider, M., & Minder, C. (1997). Bias in meta-analysis detected by a simple, graphical test. BMJ, 315, 629–634.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.315.7109.629.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. Ellis, A. L., & Riggle, E. D. B. (1996). The relation of job satisfaction and degree of openness about one’s sexual orientation for lesbian and gay men. Journal of Homosexuality, 30(2), 75–85.  https://doi.org/10.1300/J082v30n02_04.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. *Emlet, C. A. (2006). A comparison of HIV stigma and disclosure patterns between older and younger adults living with HIV/AIDS. AIDS Patient Care and STDs, 20, 350–358.  https://doi.org/10.1089/apc.2006.20.350.
  37. *Farina, A., & Ring, K. (1965). The influence of perceived mental illness on interpersonal relations. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 70, 47–51.  https://doi.org/10.1037/h0021637.
  38. Fiske, S. T., Cuddy, A. J. C., Glick, P., & Xu, J. (2002). A model of (often mixed) stereotype content: competence and warmth respectively follow from perceived status and competition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82, 878–902.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.82.6.878.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Franke, R., & Leary, M. R. (1991). Disclosure of sexual orientation by lesbians and gay men: a comparison of private and public processes. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 10, 262–269.  https://doi.org/10.1521/jscp.1991.10.3.262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Frattaroli, J. (2006). Experimental disclosure and its moderators: a meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 132, 823–865.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.132.6.823.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Friskopp, A., & Silverstein, S. (1996). Straight jobs gay lives: gay and lesbian professionals, the Harvard Business School, and the American workplace. New York: Touchstone/Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
  42. Goffman, E. (1963). Stigma: notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity. Upper Saddle River: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  43. Goodman, J. A. (2008). Extending the stigma acknowledgement hypothesis: a consideration of visibility, concealability, and timing of disclosure. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Maine, Orono.Google Scholar
  44. *Griffith, K. H., & Hebl, M. R. (2002). The disclosure dilemma for gay men and lesbians: “Coming out” at work. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 1191–1199.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.87.6.1191.
  45. *Hagiwara, N., Wessel, J. L., & Ryan, A. M. (2012). How do people react to stigma acknowledgment? Race and gender acknowledgment in the context of the 2008 presidential election. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 42, 2191–2212.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.2012.00936.x.
  46. *Hastorf, A. H., Wildfogel, J., & Cassman, T. (1979). Acknowledgement of handicap as a tactic in social interaction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 1790–1797.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.37.10.1790.
  47. *Hebl, M. R., Foster, J. B., Mannix, L. M., & Dovidio, J. F. (2002). Formal and interpersonal discrimination: a field study of bias toward homosexual applicants. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 815–825.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167202289010.
  48. *Hebl, M. R., & Kleck, R. E. (2002). Acknowledging one’s stigma in the interview setting: effective strategy or liability? Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 32, 223–249.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.2002.tb00214.x.
  49. *Hebl, M. R., & Skorinko, J. L. (2005). Acknowledging one’s physical disability in the interview: does “when” make a difference? Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 35, 2477–2492.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.2005.tb02111.x.
  50. Hedges, L. V., & Olkin, I. (1985). Statistical methods for meta-analysis. Orlando: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  51. *Herek, G. M., & Capitanio, J. P. (1996). “Some of my best friends” intergroup contact, concealable stigma, and heterosexuals’ attitudes toward gay men and lesbians. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 22, 412–424.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167296224007.
  52. Herek, G. M., Chopp, R., & Strohl, D. (2007). Sexual stigma: putting sexual minority health issues in context. In I. Meyer & M. Northridge (Eds.), The health of sexual minorities: public health perspectives on lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender populations (pp. 171–208). New York: Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. *Hernandez, M. (2011). People with apparent and non-apparent physical disabilities: well-being, acceptance, disclosure, and stigma (unpublished doctoral dissertation). Alliant International University, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  54. Hicks, G. R., & Lee, T.-T. (2006). Public attitudes toward gays and lesbians. Journal of Homosexuality, 51(2), 57–77.  https://doi.org/10.1300/J082v51n02_04.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Higgins, J. P. T., & Thompson, S. G. (2002). Quantifying heterogeneity in a meta-analysis. Statistics in Medicine, 21, 1539–1558.  https://doi.org/10.1002/sim.1186.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. *Hudson, J. (2011). The disclosure process of an invisible stigmatized identity (unpublished doctoral dissertation). DePaul University, Chicago.Google Scholar
  57. Huedo-Medina, T. B., Sánchez-Meca, J., Marín-Martínez, F., & Botella, J. (2006). Assessing hetereogeneity in meta-analysis: Q statistic of I 2 index? Psychological Methods, 11, 193–206.  https://doi.org/10.1037/1082-989X.11.2.193.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. *Huffman, A. H., Watrous-Rodriguez, K. M., & King, E. B. (2008). Supporting a diverse workforce: what type of support is most meaningful for lesbian and gay employees? Human Resource Management, 47, 237–253.  https://doi.org/10.1002/hrm.20210.
  59. Hunter, J. E., & Schmidt, F. L. (1990). Methods of meta-analysis: correcting error and bias in research findings. Newbury Park: Sage Publications, Inc..Google Scholar
  60. Hunter, J. E., & Schmidt, F. L. (2004). Methods of meta-analysis: correcting error and bias in research findings (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, Inc..CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. *James, M. X. (2010). Rainbow barrier behaviors: scale development and validation (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). The University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee.Google Scholar
  62. Jones, E. E., Farina, A., Hastorf, A. H., Markus, H., Miller, D. T., & Scott, R. A. (1984). Social stigma: the psychology of marked relationships. New York: W.H. Freeman & Company.Google Scholar
  63. Jones, E. E., & Gordon, E. M. (1972). Timing of self-disclosure and its effects on personal attraction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 24, 358–365.  https://doi.org/10.1037/h0033724.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Jones, K. P., & King, E. B. (2013). Managing concealable stigmas at work: a review and multilevel model. Journal of Management, 40, 1466–1494.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206313515518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. *Jordan, K. M., & Deluty, R. H. (1998). Coming out for lesbian women: its relation to anxiety, positive affectivity, self-esteem, and social support. Journal of Homosexuality, 35, 41–63. doi: https://doi.org/10.1300/J082v35n02_03.
  66. *Juster, R.-P., Smith, N. G., Ouellet, É., Sindi, S., & Lupien, S. J. (2013). Sexual orientation and disclosure in relation to psychiatric symptoms, diurnal cortisol, and allostatic load. Psychosomatic Medicine, 75, 103–116.  https://doi.org/10.1097/PSY.0b013e3182826881.
  67. *Kalichman, S. C., DiMarco, M., Austin, J., Luke, W., & DiFonzo, K. (2003). Stress, social support, and HIV-status disclosure to family and friends among HIV-positive men and women. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 26, 315–332. doi: https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1024252926930.
  68. *Kimberly, J. A., & Serovich, J. M. (1996). Perceived social support among people living with HIV/AIDS. The American Journal of Family Therapy, 24, 41–53.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01926189508251015.
  69. King, E. B., Reilly, C., & Hebl, M. R. (2008). The best of times, the worst of times: exploring dual perspectives of “coming out” in the workplace. Group & Organization Management, 33, 556–601.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1059601108321834.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. *King, M., Dinos, S., Shaw, J., Watson, R., Stevens, S., Passetti, F., … Serfaty, M. (2007). The stigma scale: development of a standardised measure of the stigma of mental illness. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 190, 248–254.  https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.bp.106.024638.
  71. *Lam, P. K., Naar-King, S., & Wright, K. (2007). Social support and disclosure as predictors of mental health in HIV-positive youth. AIDS Patient Care and STDs, 21, 20–29.  https://doi.org/10.1089/apc.2006.005.
  72. Laurie, M. M. (2012). I tell or you tell: the intersection between stigmas and disclosure (Unpublished undergraduate honors thesis). Texas State University – San Marcos, San Marcos.Google Scholar
  73. *Law, C. L., Martinez, L. R., Ruggs, E. N., Hebl, M. R., & Akers, E. (2011). Trans-parency in the workplace: how the experiences of transsexual employees can be improved. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 79, 710–723.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2011.03.018.
  74. Legate, N., Ryan, R. M., & Weinstein, N. (2012). Is coming out always a “good thing”? Exploring the relations of autonomy support, outness, and wellness for lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 3, 145–152.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1948550611411929.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. *Lemke, A. (1995). Passing: a mediator of adjustment in learning disabled adults (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). New Mexico State University, Las Cruces.Google Scholar
  76. *Letteney, S. G. (1997). HIV serostatus disclosure from mothers to children: Influencing factors. New York: Yeshiva University.Google Scholar
  77. *Lindsey, A. P., King, E. B., Ahmad, A. S., Sabat, I. E., & Dong, Y. (Unpublished manuscript). Timing of disclosure of sexual orientation.Google Scholar
  78. *Major, B., & Gramzow, R. H. (1999). Abortion as stigma: cognitive and emotional implications of concealment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 735–745.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.77.4.735.
  79. Meyer, I. H. (2003). Prejudice, social stress, and mental health in lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations: conceptual issues and research evidence. Psychological Bulletin, 129(5), 674–697.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.129.5.674.
  80. Miller, L. C., & Read, S. J. (1987). Why am I telling you this? Self-disclosure in a goal-based model of personality. In V. J. Derlaga & J. H. Berg (Eds.), Self-disclosure: theory, research, and therapy (pp. 35–58). New York: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. *Mogengege, M.-A. (2008). If mama’s not happy, nobody’s happy: An exploration of the influence of stigma, disclosure and family coping on the transmission of maternal depression to children in African-American families affected by HIV/AIDS (unpublished doctoral dissertation). Washington: Howard University.Google Scholar
  82. Mohr, J., & Fassinger, R. (2000). Measuring dimensions of lesbian and gay male experience. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 33, 66–90.Google Scholar
  83. Moorhead, C. (1999). Queering identities: the roles of integrity and belonging in becoming ourselves. International Journal of Sexuality and Gender Studies, 4, 327–343.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1023253513903.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Morgan, G. (2007). Globalization and organizations. In Introducing organizational behaviour and management (pp. 440–479). London: Thomson.Google Scholar
  85. Morgan, W. B., Walker, S. S., Hebl, M. M. R., & King, E. B. (2013). A field experiment: reducing interpersonal discrimination toward pregnant job applicants. Journal of Applied Psychology, 98, 799–809.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0034040.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. *Munir, F., Leka, S., & Griffiths, A. (2005). Dealing with self-management of chronic illness at work: predictors for self-disclosure. Social Science & Medicine, 60, 1397–1407.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2004.07.012.
  87. Newheiser, A. K., & Barreto, M. (2014). Hidden costs of hiding stigma: ironic interpersonal consequences of concealing a stigmatized identity in social interactions. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 52, 58–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Oswald, D. L. (2007). “Don’t ask, Don’t tell”: the influence of stigma concealing and perceived threat on perceivers’ reactions to a gay target. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 37, 928–947.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.2007.00193.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Pachankis, J. E. (2007). The psychological implications of concealing a stigma: a cognitive-affective-behavioral model. Psychological Bulletin, 133, 328–345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Pascoe, E. A., & Smart Richman, L. (2009). Perceived discrimination and health: a meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 135, 531–554.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0016059.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  91. Ragins, B. R. (2008). Disclosure disconnects: antecedents and consequences of disclosing invisible stigmas across life domains. Academy of Management Review, 33, 194–215.  https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.2008.27752724.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Ragins, B. R., & Cornwell, J. M. (2001). Pink triangles: antecedents and consequences of perceived workplace discrimination against gay and lesbian employees. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 1244–1261.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.86.6.1244.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  93. *Ragins, B. R., Singh, R., & Cornwell, J. M. (2007). Making the invisible visible: fear and disclosure of sexual orientation at work. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 1103–1118.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.92.4.1103.
  94. Rosario, M., Schrimshaw, E. W., & Hunter, J. (2004). Ethnic/racial differences in the coming-out process of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths: a comparison of sexual identity development over time. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 10, 215–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Roy, R. E., Weibust, K. S., & Miller, C. T. (2007). Effects of stereotypes about feminists on feminist self-identification. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 31, 146–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. *Sabat, I. E., Lindsey, A. P., King, E. B., Ahmad, A. S., Membere, A., & Arena, D. F. (2017). How prior knowledge of LGB identities alters the effects of workplace disclosure. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 103, 56–70.Google Scholar
  97. Sabat, I. E., Lindsey, A. P., & King, E. B. (2015). Antecedents, outcomes, prevention, and coping strategies for lesbian, gay, and bisexual workplace stress. In P. L. Perrewe, C. C. Rosen, & J. R. B. Halbesleben (Eds.) Research in occupational stress and well-being: the role of demographics in occupational stress and well being (vol. 12, pp. 173–198), Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.Google Scholar
  98. *Sanchez, D. T., & Bonam, C. M. (2009). To disclose or not to disclose biracial identity: the effect of biracial disclosure on perceiver evaluations and target responses. Journal of Social Issues, 65, 129–149.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.2008.01591.x.
  99. Schmidt, F. (2008). Meta-analysis: a constantly evolving research integration tool. Organizational Research Methods, 11, 96–113.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1094428107303161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Schmidt, F. L., & Hunter, J. E. (2014). Methods of meta-analysis: correcting error and bias in research findings (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications, Inc.Google Scholar
  101. Sheridan, L. P. (2006). Islamophobia pre- and post-September 11th, 2001. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 21, 317–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. *Simoni, J. M., Demas, P., Mason, H. R. C., Drossman, J. A., & Davis, M. L. (2000). HIV disclosure among women of African descent: Associations with coping, social support, and psychological adaptation. AIDS and Behavior, 4, 147–158.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1009508406855.
  103. *Singletary, S. L., & Hebl, M. R. (2009). Compensatory strategies for reducing interpersonal discrimination: the effectiveness of acknowledgments, increased positivity, and individuating information. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94, 797–805. doi: https://doi.org/10.1037/a0014185.
  104. *Slade, P., O’Neill, C., Simpson, A. J., & Lashen, H. (2007). The relationship between perceived stigma, disclosure patterns, support and distress in new attendees at an infertility clinic. Human Reproduction, 22, 2309–2317.  https://doi.org/10.1093/humrep/dem115.
  105. Smith, R., Rossetto, K., & Peterson, B. L. (2008). A meta-analysis of disclosure of one’s HIV-positive status, stigma and social support. AIDS Care, 20, 1266–1275.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09540120801926977.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. *Sowell, R. L., Seals, B. F., Moneyham, L., Demi, A., Cohen, L., & Brake, S. (1997). Quality of life in HIV-infected women in the south-eastern United States. AIDS Care, 9, 501–512.  https://doi.org/10.1080/713613191.
  107. *Steward, W. T., Chandy, S., Singh, G., Panicker, S. T., Osmand, T. A., Heylen, E., & Ekstrand, M. L. (2011). Depression is not an inevitable outcome of disclosure avoidance: HIV stigma and mental health in a cohort of HIV-infected individuals from southern India. Psychology, Health & Medicine, 16, 74–85.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13548506.2010.521568.
  108. Stutterheim, S. E., Bos, A. E., Pryor, J. B., Brands, R., Liebregts, M., & Schaalma, H. P. (2011b). Psychological and social correlates of HIV status disclosure: The significance of stigma visibility. AIDS Education and Prevention, 23, 382–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. *Stutterheim, S. E., Bos, A. E. R., Pryor, J. B., Brands, R., Liebregts, M., & Schaalma, H. P. (2011a). Psychological and social correlates of HIV status disclosure: The significance of stigma visibility. AIDS Education and Prevention, 23, 382–392.  https://doi.org/10.1521/aeap.2011.23.4.382.
  110. *Swank, E., Fahs, B., & Frost, D. M. (2013). Region, social identities, and disclosure practices as predictors of heterosexist discrimination against sexual minorities in the United States. Sociological Inquiry, 83, 238–258.  https://doi.org/10.1111/soin.12004.
  111. Swann, W. B., Jr. (1983). Self-verification: Bringing social reality into harmony with the self. In J. Suls & A. G. Greenwald (Eds.), Social psychological perspectives on the self (Vol. 2, pp. 33–66). Hillsdale: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  112. *Tagalakis, V., Amsel, R., & Fichten, C. S. (1988). Job interview strategies for people with a visible disability. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 18, 520–532.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.1988.tb00033.x.
  113. *Talley, A. E., & Bettencourt, B. A. (2011). The moderator roles of coping style and identity disclosure in the relationship between perceived sexual stigma and psychological distress. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 41, 2883–2903.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.2011.00863.x.
  114. *Velez, B. L., Moradi, B., & Brewster, M. E. (2013). Testing the tenets of minority stress theory in workplace contexts. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 60, 532–542.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0033346.
  115. Viechtbauer, W., & Cheung, M. W.-L. (2010). Outlier and influence diagnostics for meta-analysis. Research Synthesis Methods, 1, 112–125.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jrsm.11.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. *Vyavaharkar, M., Moneyham, L., Corwin, S., Tavakoli, A., Saunders, R., & Annang, L. (2011). HIV-disclosure, social support, and depression among HIV-infected African American women living in the rural southeastern United States. AIDS Education and Prevention, 23, 78–90.  https://doi.org/10.1521/aeap.2011.23.1.78.
  117. *Waldo, C. R. (1999). Working in a majority context: a structural model of heterosexism as minority stress in the workplace. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 46, 218–232.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0167.46.2.218.
  118. Weaver, C. N. (2008). Social distance as a measure of prejudice among ethnic groups in the United States. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 38, 779–795.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.2007.00326.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Wegner, D. M., & Lane, J. D. (1995). From secrecy to psychopathology. In J. W. Pennebaker (Ed.), Emotion, disclosure, and health (pp. 25–46). Washington: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. *Weiss, R. (2003). Antecedents and consequences of workplace serostatus disclosure among a diverse, urban sample of employed HIV-infected people (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Claremont: Claremont Graduate University.Google Scholar
  121. Wells, J. W., & Kline, W. B. (1987). Self-disclosure of homosexual orientation. The Journal of Social Psychology, 127, 191–197.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00224545.1987.9713679.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. *Wessel, J. L., Hagiwara, N., Ryan, A. M., & Kermond, C. M. Y. (2015). Should women applicants “man up” for traditionally masculine fields? Effectiveness of two verbal identity management strategies. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 39, 243–255. Advance online publication.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0361684314543265.
  123. Whitener, E. M. (1990). Confusion of confidence intervals and credibility intervals in meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 75, 315–321.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.75.3.315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyTexas A&M UniversityCollege StationUSA
  2. 2.Department of ManagementUniversity of MemphisMemphisUSA
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyRice UniversityHoustonUSA
  4. 4.School of Public HealthUniversity of California, BerkeleyBerkeleyUSA
  5. 5.Department of PsychologyGeorge Mason UniversityFairfaxUSA
  6. 6.Department of PsychologyPortland State UniversityPortlandUSA

Personalised recommendations